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Žanis Lipke

Žanis Lipke and his wife Johanna

Žanis Lipke and his wife Johanna

Holocaust was the most massive crime in the Latvian history. About 70 000 Jews from Latvia were killed and 19 000 Jews brought from Western Europe were killed on Latvian soil. It was time of despair for Latvian nation as they had to make a very tough choices. Took part in crime, assist the crime or be a bystander.  Most took the second choice, but there were many who sadly took the first. However, the most toughest choice was to rescue Jews from killings. This action was associated with great risk as it was punishable by death and Nazi authorities carefully searched for any Jew that escaped the murders. So such act of humanity and resistance was rare and brave thing to do. In 1945 in Jerusalem a memorial museum “Yad Vashem” was established to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust, documentation and research and special focus for them was the Jewish rescuers. Yad Vashem issues special Honorary Title “Righteous Among Nations” to all Jewish rescuers. A special tree is planted in memorial garden to commemorate them.  65 of them are persons from Latvia. The small number can be explained due to the suspicion by the Soviet authorities towards rescued Jews preventing them to establish connections with Israel and Yad Vashem. Only if the persons were permitted to emigrate they could safely report their rescuers to Yad Vashem commission. According to research done by Marģers Vestermanis 400-500 Jews were rescued during Nazi occupation. Many Jews were failed to rescue and their rescuers arrested. 32 people are known to be repressed for rescue attempts. Museum “Jews in Latvia” has gathered 220 events of Jewish rescue attempts with 400 people involved.  Among the rescuers most known were Roberts and Johanna Sedols in Liepāja who rescued 11 Jews in Liepāja,  Sonja Švarca rescued nine persons in Riga, Elvīra Rone eight, Artūrs Motmillers seven people. Baltic German politician Paul Schiemann is known hosting young Jewish woman before his death on 1944 and gained title “Righteous Among Nations”. The person with the most rescued people count was Jānis (Žanis) Lipke. He helped 55 people to survive the war hiding them in various places in Riga and rest around Dobele in Kurzeme (Courland) region. With assistance of few trusted associates he did frantic work rescuing people during Nazi occupation and was the one of the first of Latvian rescuers who gained international recognition. This story is about him and his rescued ones.

Jānis Lipke nicknamed Žanis for most of his life was born on February 1 1900 in Jelgava then known as Mittau. He finished three classes but was fluent in German and Russian. His parents did not live long, father lost his life in the frontlines of the First World war and mother died in 1920. Žanis himself joined the Latvian Rifleman on 1918 and year later joined Latgale Artillery regiment. After the war was over he came to Riga and met his future wife Johanna Novicka who 17 years old at the time of their marriage.  From 1926 to 1940 he worked in Riga harbor in docks and storage facilities. There he mastered his underground work abilities by giving refuge to social democrats and communists who were persecuted by Kārlis Ulmanis authoritarian regime. He was also called in for smuggling, made private bus rides between Jelgava and Valmiera and owned yacht.

On 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded Latvia Lipke started to work in “Luftwaffe” storage near Riga Central Market. The Riga Ghetto established by Nazis to prison all the Jews in Riga was close. Before 1941 Ghettos were never established in Latvia. Jews lived where they wanted, sometimes in larger concentrations in one place than other. The Moscow district near the Riga Central Market and Railway station was one of the most Jewish populated districts in Riga. Nazis moved all the Jews in Riga there and surrounded the territory with barbed wire and guard posts. Similar ghetto was established in Daugavpils the city with most Jews and many other smaller cities were Jews were separated from other citizens until the time of their death.

Lipke gained Nazi trust by graduating air defense courses and was appointed to transport Jews to forced labor sites and back. That allowed him to start his rescue mission. First rescued was family friend Chaim Slomensky  who was picked up by Lipke during transport from ghetto to labor site. Few others were prevented from returning to ghetto. As the ghetto security became tougher every such attempt became more difficult. Few trusted friends and relatives were involved in rescue attempts. He found people who hosted rescued Jews in various places in Riga and rural house around Dobele. The success of his mission was contributed by his talent of talking people in, bribing the guards or divert their attention by use of alcohol or casual talks. Lipke lived in small house in Ķīpsala an island in Riga. Ķīpsala was located in front of city center separated by river Daugava. During the Nazi occupation Ķīpsala was made of small tensely build wooden fisherman houses that were ideal for covert rescue shelter. There he made small bunker for some of the rescued while others were sheltered elsewhere.

Žanis Lipke shed under which the bunker was made for his rescued ones

Žanis Lipke shed under which the bunker was made for his rescued ones

In such way he and his rescued ones made until October 13 1944 when Red army marched in Riga. Before soviets marched in he also managed to smuggle out Latvians who deserted Latvian Waffen SS Legion. He did so by working in German Forestry service and transported captured trophy vehicles from Riga to Kurzeme. Soviet paratroopers brothers Rozenbergs were also sheltered by him. He was arrested by Soviet secret police NKVD who questioned him about his son Alfrēds who served in German army support service. After finding out that he rescued Jews the NKVD then started to question his reasons and tried to find the hidden Jewish gold and diamonds. During questioning Lipke lost his patience and shouted to Soviet officer that communists are the same bandits as Nazis, Nazis shoot you by looking in the eye, while Soviets shoot from the back. Despite such grave insult he was released by the Soviets and not bothered again.

After the war he continued to live in his house in Balasta dambis in Ķīpsala. His rescued ones who made it to Israel made him popular and on 1977 when he visited the country he was greeted warmly by crowds of people. Yad Vashem recognized him as the Righteous Among Nation   and holds documents related to his actions and planted a tree in alley of heroes within the memorial complex. Those who remained in Latvia visited Lipke two times in a year. He was very popular among Latvian Jewish community. One of his rescued Dāvids Zilbermans wrote a book “As a Star in Darkness” where he gathered the accounts from rescued ones about Lipke.

Žanis Lipke memorial

Žanis Lipke memorial

On May 14 1987 Lipke died from stroke and was buried in Riga II Forest cemetery. Since then actions were made to commemorate his name. A memorial stone to Lipke and his family was placed in Riga New Jewish cemetery,   on 1995 at the location of main Riga Ghetto gate a memorial plaque was placed commemorating him. Lipkes relatives continued to live in their small wooden house in Balasta dambis 8. On 2005 a society “Žanis Lipke Memorial” lead by ex Prime Minister Māris Gailis was established to create a memorial next to Lipkes house. The project was designed by his wife Zaiga Gaile. The memorial was finished on 2012 and was instantly praised for his architectural design and interior. The museum holds permanent exhibition about life and work of Žanis Lipke and his family. The basement levels holds space for temporary exhibits and small guest hall is often used for lectures and presentations. The wooden building was made to recreate the Lipke’s shelter in form of Noah’as ark and the bunker within the lover levels of the memorial. The memorial itself is perfectly hidden between the buildings in Ķīpsala as the original Lipke’s shelter was. To this day is the most modern and popular Holocaust memorial in Latvia. The Lipke museum also has made a project “Underground Riga” to mark all the sites in Riga where Lipke and other rescuers made shelters for Jews, Communists and Legion deserters by erecting small   plaques on the ground next to the buildings. Thanks to the memorial Žanis Lipke has became popular in Latvia and abroad more than ever.

Lipke himself described his actions as purely non-selfish. To question how much he rescued he said he did not count, those who saved he saved without much counting. Lipke was remembered as nice person and a risk taker that contributed to his savior person. His efforts and names lives till this day and serves as example to how to act in times of war and despair.

Selected Sources:

http://www.lipke.lv/lv

PRETDARBĪBA HOLOKAUSTAM LATVIJĀ Marģers Vestermanis

http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/lipke.asp

 

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The Myth of The Horrible Year

Cover of the Nazi propaganda book "The Horrible Year" (Baigais Gads)

Cover of the Nazi propaganda book “The Horrible Year” (Baigais Gads)

June is one of the most tragic months for Latvian history. Three significant dates June 17 1940, June 14 1941 and June 22 1941 took place in short time span over two years and brought great losses. The country lost its independence, thousands of people were arrested, deported or executed. Then the Nazi German occupation brought another brutal occupation and genocide on Latvian Jews and Romas. The first Soviet occupation in many Latvian history books, memoirs and other news media has been described as the “Horrible Year” (Baigais Gads)  The term has also been picked up by foreigners and has appeared in their publications. However, not always we comprehend the true meaning of the term and the problem that this term was created by the Nazis to justify the genocide against Jews in Latvia. For this reason the term “Horrible Year” has come under scrutiny for last few years. Historians question the correct usage of this nazi propaganda concept in popular and academic history texts and examines how much this nazi propaganda creation still affects the Latvian social memory and current political discourse. For Latvian Jewish minority the term “Horrible Year” serves as unjust accusation to them for soviet occupation and justification for the Holocaust. Yet for many especially the older generation it serves as symbol for 1940 occupation and sometimes people tend to ignore the fact that this term was created by Nazis. In word horrible they see all the horrors and repressions that took place from June 1940 to June 1941. While there is a group of people within Latvian society that openly exploits the antisemitic character of the term. One of the first scholars who openly called “Horrible Year” a myth was Dr. Hist. Kaspars Zellis who has written many publications on this subject. This article discusses was “Horrible Year” a myth a construct of Nazi propaganda and how it affects the Latvian society today. This article in no way denies or questions the soviet occupation or soviet repressions during 1940-1941. The facts are not deniable this article questions how facts and made out facts used for propaganda creates a powerful myth that stays powerful for many years to come.

The Latvian word baigs stands for “horrible”, “dreadful”, “fearful” or “terrible”. The term creates a strong emotions like fear, resentment and condemnation. It also stands a metaphor apocalyptic event the soviet occupation of Latvia that is caused by the satanic enemy – Jews and Bolsheviks. The 1940-1941 the Latvian Golgotha a horrific event with many victims and martyrs that ends with ultimate resurrection and liberation as Nazis tried to describe the invasion in 1941. The second coming is followed by judgement day for those who caused the apocalypse on the first place – the Jews and the Bolsheviks. As the events of history turned the myth evolved – the enemies are coming back, the Latvians must rise again to fight them in the ranks of Latvian Waffen SS Legion. After the battle was lost the myth stayed within minds as explanation for all the calamities of the 1940 and showed “who is the blame” for them. Ultimately the myth creates an idea of Latvian genocide, that must be avenged after the restoration of independence and everything must be done to prevent it from repeating again.

1940 was not the first year in Latvian history to be described as horrible. The Baltic Germans and their exiles in Germany in their publications called 1905 as the horrible year. During the 1905 revolution there were numerous events of violent confrontations between  Latvians and the Baltic Germans. Germans accused Latvian nation of violent aggression against them. The fear from the repeat of 1905 was one of the reasons why many Baltic Germans stood against the Latvian independence during 1918-1919 with arms. On June 22 1941 Germans under Nazi banner returned to Latvia that was occupied by the Soviets since June 1941. First time the word horrible was used was July 4 in Nazi controlled newspaper Tēvija (Fatherland). The newspaper begun its text with “Horrible was the year of the red terror in our beutiful Riga”. The variation of baigs horrible was used in many other Nazi newspaper at the start of the occupation. However, the concept of the horrible year was taken from  famous Latvian poet Edvarts Virza (1883-1940) who wrote a poem called “The Horrible Summer” on 1939. The poem describing a bad times ahead published year before the occupation was seen for many as prophecy. Edvarts Virza himself died on March 10 1940 and did not witness how his poem became symbol and was used by Nazi propaganda. The poem was re-published on August 9 1941 in Tēvija and became popular. Propaganda articles used the term horrible even more until pastor from Mazsalaca Alfrēds Skrodelis first used “Horrible Year” as term for all period of the soviet occupation. In his article “The benefits of the horrible year” he talked about the Bolshevik materialism unsuitable for Latvians that was changed by German “culture of soul” that Latvians have found as their savior.

But it was not until the publication of book called “The Horrible Year”. Collections of images and documents about the time of the Bolsheviks in Latvia” The book was accompanied by documentary “Sarkanā Migla” “The Red Fog”. Both propaganda works were published in 1942 year after the Nazi occupation. The genocide against Jews in Latvia was over by then and powerful works of propaganda was needed to justify the extermination of thousands of people. Since then the term “Horrible Year” became central term for soviet occupation of 1940-1941 and after the war made his way into Latvian exile works and encyclopedias.

The needs for this myth can be explained for Nazi goals in Latvia on 1941-1942. Nazi political directives set by Adolf Hitler was clear Soviet Union out of Jews and Bolsheviks. However, the Nazi policy was to create the image that the extermination was done by the locals as revenge against the Soviets. Germans would only instigate the actions with propaganda and assist the locals. Such conception was realized in Baltic States, Belarus and Ukraine. However, despite the massive antisemitic propaganda Nazis failed to achieve their goals. While in separate cases in Lithuania or Ukraine there were events of violent pogroms made by Nazi influenced locals, all acts of exterminations were carried under German orders and supervision by local self-defense groups who were disbanded after the extermination was done.  And major massacres like Babi Yar and Rumbula was carried out by German special units. In Latvia no pogroms carried out by simple Latvians themselves did not took place. The events of 4th July in Riga when main Choral Synagogue was burned to the ground was carried out by Arājs Commando adjacent to German Security Police. In all territory of Latvia holocaust was carried out in organized manner by German orders. The German propaganda filmed the execution of Liepāja Jews to make it look that the execution was done only Latvians excluding the Germans observing and controlling it. Of course the guilt of Latvians who took part in extermination are undeniable and condemned and their motivation for taking part in the crimes serves to one each individually.

  Jews were killed in every each city and village of Latvia. Such action never been seen in Latvian history needed to be explained to Latvians. While violent actions against soldiers of Red Army, Latvian collaborators with communists needed less explanation the genocide against Jews required some effort. Many Latvians did not understand anti-Jewish actions, some tried to help others stood by and tried to ignore it. Antisemitism in Latvia before the war was present and widespread mainly caused by social rivalry between two ethnicities.  There however, were no events of pogroms and only few violent excesses between the two. There were forces who accused Jews of supporting communists and people who called for Jewish expulsion from Latvian society based on economic social accusations. Nazi propaganda used all these factors to ignite antisemitic propaganda against the Jews.  Jews were accused as the main supporters of the Soviet occupation, Jews were accused for planning and supporting the  mass deportation of June 14 1941. Jews were accused of looting out Latvia during 1940-1941. While pinning all fault on real crimes, often fake crimes attributed towards Jews were widespread.

Nazis would have carried out Holocaust without this propaganda. However, it was needed spread the false view that it was demanded and carried out by Latvians themselves. The authors of the Nazi controlled newspapers often showed self initiative helped Nazis to pin all blame on Latvians. On winter of 1941-1942 Nazi General directory Interior Authority and personal cases issued order to start searching and assembling sources to write history of the Bolshevik rule. The order was for Latvian cities and parishes. The result was book called “Baigais Gads” published in summer 1942. The book contained selected or faked documents and images many of them highly graphic. The books narrative was that Republic of Latvia because of its weakness and mistakes lead itself to Soviet occupation that was carried by Jews according to their plan of world domination. All main repressions were carried out by Jewish Bolsheviks. Nazi Germany came as liberators and rescued Latvians from the danger of Jewish Bolshevism and now Latvians must do their part for creation of the New Europe. There was never a talk of restoration of Latvian independence – Latvian future only lies with Nazi Germany. As its have been noted Nazi propaganda was very against Latvian independent state before 1940.

To accompany the book a propaganda ‘documentary’ “The Red Fog” filled with powerful slogans, exalted narrator speech and mesmerizing images  was released. Movie used false witnesses that accused Jews of burning the tower of St. Peters church that was actually destroyed by German artillery. Film so as the book heavily focused on victims of Riga Central Prison. During the Soviet retreat from Riga on June 27 1941 shot 78 inmates from June 27 to 29 99 more people were killed including citizens. After Riga was captured by Germans the bodies were discovered and buried large funerals filmed by German propaganda makers. The bodies had signs of horrible torture, many appeared mutilated. Crippled faces and bodies were shown in detail and described as atrocity of the Jewish Bolsheviks.  There are critical accounts that state that because of rather hot summer and dry air these bodies suffered from heavy decomposition making them look worse than when they died. But, these images were so powerful that stayed in memory for generations to come. The movie also a featured rather disturbing scene a zoom in image of the face of the Jewish Bolshevik. In reality the face belonged to the Polish actor.

The Face of the Jewish Bolshevik from Nazi propaganda movie the Red Fog

The Face of the Jewish Bolshevik from Nazi propaganda movie the Red Fog

Nazis moved further by making June 14 the day of mourning marked in churches. July 1st when Nazis marched in Riga was marked as day of celebration. The NKVD (soviet secret police) “torture chambers” were placed for public visits. On 1942 a touring exhibit across Latvia was called the “Year of Red Power in Latvia” with openly antisemitic posters was introduced to the public. During 1943 when front was approaching Latvia, Latvian Waffen SS Legion was formed propaganda focused on danger of return of the Horrible Year. All men was called to participate.  On 1944 when Soviets entered Latvia the Nazi controlled media spread the propaganda tales of new Horrible Year emerging and the return of Jewish killer squads. All was done to convince Latvians to resist Soviets and follow German orders.

Poster for Nazi propaganda exhibit the Year of Red power in Latvia"

Poster for Nazi propaganda exhibit the Year of Red power in Latvia”

The statistics of the “Horrible Year” speaks for itself. 15 424 people were deported. 6 081 of them died (%39,43%) The number of killed in Latvia during soviet occupation is said to be 1355. Number of repressed 20 000- 21 000 people. In comparison during first half of 1941 the amount of repressed people was around 20 000, 66 000 Latvian Jews were killed, 24 000 alone in Rumbula massacre. 2000 Roma in Latvia were killed. These numbers show that Nazis needed to justify their equally murderous actions and gain as much as Latvian support and obedience as possible. This all not to mention that Nazi Germany by signing Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact on August 23 1939 with its secret protocols also shared responsibility for soviet occupation of Latvia.

After the defeat of Nazi Germany the “Horrible Year” lived on trough Latvian exiles. It was mentioned in their publications and often became part of their identity. During regain of independence the “Horrible Year” again returned in Latvian public discourse. However, it faced transformation as Jews were replaced with Russians as it was no longer convenient to blame the Jews for the occupations. “Horrible Year” as boogeyman and accusation against Russian speaking minority was used by some forces of the Latvian society. Still there are people who apply the core of the myth that Jews are the blame for occupation and repressions. Antisemitic politicians, anonymous commentators often use the term “Jewish Chekist” against Latvian Jewish community. The book “Horrible Year” was re published and spread trough internet. The movie “Red Fog” is available on youtube.  On 2000 historic movie “Horrible Summer” depicting the events of June 1940 was released. Its name hints in “Horrible Year”, however it refrains from Nazi propaganda narrative and instead focused on other myths.  Antisemitic commentators use “Horrible Year” as accusation against the Jews and counter arguments to Jewish related issues such as Jewish property restitution.   One of the leftovers of the “Horrible Year” is a popular claim that most supporters of Kremlin in Latvia are Jews. While there are few such persons really supporting Russian its question if their self-identity is Jewish or Russian. The picking Jews out of large crowd is similar to recent attempts of Donald Trump supporters to place people criticizing Trump in brackets to outline their Jewish nationality or ethnicity.  Outlining ones national belonging and then generalizing with whole nation was a method of Nazis and sadly still used today.

In conclusion to the question was “Horrible Year” a myth? Yes it was. It was a Nazi propaganda concept to justify their own occupation and crimes and gain Latvian support. The Soviet occupation of 1940-1941 was real, the deportations and repressions took place. But what was the myth it was Jewish collective blame for these events, it was myth and great lie that Nazis was the saviors  of the Latvian people. To break the myth we must call things in their true names. During Soviet occupation not only Latvians were the victims of the Soviet occupation, Jews, Russians many others faced repressions and deportations. Nazis in 1941 came as conquerors and realized a genocide against Jews regardless of their age, gender and political convictions.  There can no justifications for such actions. All rest is propaganda. Latvian nation is slowly moving away from effect of the Nazi lies and it needs to focus on current challenges of the dangerous XXI century.

Selected Sources:

Zellis, Kaspars. “Baigā gada” mīts un tā evolūcija. Mīti Latvijas Vēsturē. Rīga. 2006

Зеллис К. «Страшный год» — миф и его эволюция

 

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Salaspils Camp

"Behind this gate the land cries" entrance in the Salaspils memorial

“Behind this gate the land cries” entrance in the Salaspils memorial

World War 2 was the most tragic event for the Latvian people. Thousands were killed and deported by two totalitarian regimes in short time span of five years. Latvia is full of mass killing sites that serves as memory for the times of terror. Since 1967 one of the most known symbols of the Nazi terror in Latvia was the Salaspils camp. Salaspils was the site of camp run by Nazi SS and Security police SD Salaspils camp was the site of thousands of prisoners including children with great number of causalities. On 1959 a decision was made to build a memorial dedicated to the victims of the camp. It was follow-up to the trend in memorial architecture to mark the sites of Nazi concentration camps started by Buchenwald memorial in Eastern Germany, later memorial in Majdanek Czechoslovakia and Auschwitz in Poland. The result was a large memorial ensemble of brutalist style sculpture and architectonic foundation. The memorial was 25 ha in width and emotionally powerful example of synthesis between architecture and sculpture. The authors were architects Gunārs Asaris, Ivars Strautmanis, Oļģerts Ostenbergs, Oļegs Zakamennijs and sculptors Oļegs Skarainis, Ļevs Bukovskis, Jānis Zariņš.

Since then the Salaspils camp became one of the most known symbols of the Nazi terror in Latvia. Soviet power however, made ideological fallacy by trying to compare the Salaspils camp to above mentioned Nazi camps in Germany and Eastern Europe. Soviet propaganda meanwhile ignored the mass killing sites of Jews and Roma’s and Mežaparks (Kaiservald) concentration camp that was exclusively made for Jews and contained larger number of inmates. Instead Soviet propaganda and official history overly focused on Salaspils camp creating exaggerations that has caused heated arguments between modern-day Latvian and Russian historians. The discussion was again brought to light after new joint research was published this January by Latvian historians that played down many of the Soviet exaggerations especially the number of victims and inmates and the fate of camps children prisoners. Here we take a look on the claims made by Soviet and Latvian historians about the camp in Salaspils.

During the Soviet occupation no major academic work on Salaspils camp was made. Instead it was mentioned in popular texts and newspapers and mentioned in general history publications. The camp was mentioned in Soviet newspapers already in November 30 1944 where it was claimed that Nazis collected blood from children prisoners for the German Red Cross. The newspaper called to avenge every blood of the Soviet children for the blood of the dirty Germans. It was in line of the Soviet war-time propaganda for vengeance against the German nation. But, the thesis of Salaspils as “Blood Factory” remained within Soviet publications for years to come. Many more newspaper articles described the horrors for children in the camp and claimed that Jewish children were used for firing range although no Jewish children were ever known to be there. On 1945 when the war was over the USSR Extraordinary Investigation Commission (EIC) started to gather evidence for the Nazi crimes within Latvia. It concluded that camp had 56 000 death prisoners within them 7000 children.  During the sixties and seventies the camp was now described as death camp. The publications claimed that camp also used gas trucks to murder the inmates. It was claimed that Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer had visited the camp personally. The usual claimed death toll was 100 000 people including the affiliated camps in Latvia with 12 000 to 7000 children. 3500 liters of blood was taken from children. Soviets also added the Soviet prisoners of war to the list of civilian inmates as the Soviet propaganda avoided to mention the large numbers of Soviet POW’S. This trend was continued by Russian modern historians who repeat the Soviet interpretations. The latest attempts by Russian foundation “Historic Memory” was an exhibit “Deported childhood: The fates of deported children from Russia and Belarus to Latvia” that was called a disinformation by Latvian historians and authorities. Later the same foundation tried to do an exhibit in UNESCO headquarters in Paris, but the request was denied.

The Latvian historiography tends to question two main things: the actual number of inmates and victims and the classification of the Salaspils camp. Popular way of calling Salaspils camp is to label it as “concentration camp.” Soviet publications called it a “death camp”. According to German historian Gudrun Schwartz there are 17 categories of the German run camps during the WW2 starting from work labor camps to the death camp. Salaspils was camp where people were imprisoned, humiliated, forced to harsh labor and killed. All these actions took place almost in every of 17 categories of camps. The historian must take two turns of how to categorize the Salaspils camp. The emotionally subjective way of the documentary way based on German and Soviet documents. The emotionally subjective way most often leads to call Salaspils as concentration camp as large numbers of people were concentrated and imprisoned for various reasons; nationality, political affiliations and crimes against the Nazi laws. People in Salaspils died from violence, death sentences, hunger and diseases, however it was a never a death camp where people were killed in industrial manner for the very purpose of extermination. So calling a death camp is incorrect to very least. The Soviet Gulag camps often operated the same ways, but are not described as death camps. The death camp was camp where prisoners were killed right after their arrival namely six camps: Belzek, Sobibora, Treblinka, Helmno, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau. In Auschwitz the work able people were sent to concentration camp while others killed.

The documentary way is often criticized by supporters of emotional classification who accuse of following the Nazi paradigm. The official German name for the camp was “Extended police prison and work labor re education camp” On 2005 main Latvian historians published book called “Latvia 20th century” where this term was used. When Vaira Vīķe Freiberga the president of Latvia made visit to Moscow on May 9th and gave the Russian translation of the book to Vladimir Putin. It’s doubtful Putin ever read the book, but the Russian propaganda took out the official camp name as a proof that Latvia is “re-writing” history. The wave of anti-Latvian propaganda was followed by books and movies accusing Latvia of rehabilitating Nazi occupation.

The question what was Salaspils camp can be answered how the Germans viewed the camp themselves and what were their plans regarding and outcomes of their plans. The discussion for the camp building in Salaspils was started in 1941 when head of the Einsatzgruppe A SS-Brigadeführer Walter Stahlecker raised the issue of overcrowding of prisoners and recommended to build a concentration camp to sort out work able prisoners. The camp would be under direction of Security Police SD. He was granted build such camp on August 4 1941. Month later the Reich Chief Authority sent note that its unacceptable by all means that SD maintains concentration camps and if the camp is made they are to be called extended police prisons  and under jurisdiction of directive issued by SS reichsführer Heinrich Himmler about police prisons and work labor re-education camps.

Local German authorities continued to ask for rights to build a concentration camp and added an argument that camp was needed to host the Jews for they cannot be kept in the Riga Ghetto forever. But requests were written in eased out form calling the desired object as “extended police prison similar to concentration camp” A specialist from Germany was requested to lead the camp building.

On October 11 1941 Stahlecker asked the General Commissioner of Latvia Otto-Heinrich Drechsler to gather large amount construction supplies for concentration camp in between Riga, Jelgava and Tukums for Jews exiled from Germany and occupied Poland. 10 days later the camp site was moved to the site near Riga-Daugavpils railway and was no longer called a concentration camp. As of November 30 the first Rumbula massacre took place taking lives of hundreds of thousands lives of Jews of Riga Ghetto the camp was no longer required for them. Last surviving Jews were taken to Mežaparks (Kaiserwald) camp in Riga that was officially called by Germans as concentration camp by the order of Heinrich Himmler on June 21 1943. Salaspils camp in the process of its existence was never officially called a concentration camp. The classification was important for Germans as it would determine the authority it would subordinated to and laws regarding it. The SD did not want to lose its authority and the Himmler’s requirements to change it to concentration camp were not met. Instead The Chief Authority of the Reich Security issued note to SS court that Salaspils is not a concentration camp but extended police prison with added SD labor re-education camp.

The second main question is the number of victims and inmates. The first victims of the camp were Jews from Germany and Austria who were sent to take part in the camp building. As no expert from Germany was sent the building and design was directed by local Latvians Jānis Irbe the chief of the Riga second building office and technical chief Frīdrihs Mednis. At first the work force was hired locals and Soviet POW’S who were held captive at Stalag 350 POW camp nearby. As of early 1942 the most workforces was now Jews from Germany, Austria and occupied Poland. 1000 Jews were involved in the building on January 5 1942. The harsh winter, rough labor, small food rations and illness lead to constant deaths of the forced labor. 10-12 people may have died within the day. As the ground was frozen it was hard to dig graves and bodies were kept behind barracks to await ground blowouts to bury them. Jews died from harsh punishments, many were killed on spot. The punishments were made for not working, stealing, trying to escape and speculation. People were shot or hanged. The amount of dead Jewish workers it’s not clearly known. The estimates call 1500-1800 Jews to be involved in the camp building and 1000 of them dead from various causes including death punishment.

Salaspils camp drawing by former inmate Kārlis Bušs

Salaspils camp drawing by former inmate Kārlis Bušs

After the main building works were finished the Jews were transported away to Riga Ghetto and new inmates of various categories were sent to camp. Small numbers of Jews for “special reasons” were kept in the camp. They were possibly Jews from Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. Jews also were stationed in camp temporally in transit. 100 or Jews may have died in the camp. But the camp was mainly built for non-Jewish persons.

One of them was work truants as Nazi occupation took many steps to combat work truancy and dawdling. Also speculates, thieves, tax avoiders and illegal alcohol producers. These people were sent to camp. 1800 of them were imprisoned at Salaspils. Salaspils also hosted political prisoner’s mostly Soviet activists who also took part in building process. Also members from the Latvian nationalist movement that opposed the Nazis. Members of the Polish nationalist resistance movement were also present. Nationalist Latvian inmates were mostly spared from harsh works by Nazi authority and guards looked at them with ease. Some of them were freed or sent to Latvian Waffen SS Legion. Latvian collaborators within occupation authorities often tried to help their compatriots and German Nazis saw Latvian nationalists as lesser evil. For a short time the leading members of the Latvian Central Council the main anti-Nazi movement in Latvia were stationed in Salaspils and then sent to camps in Germany. More than 100 Latvian national resistance movement members were present in Salaspils. Most women prisoners were political activists either Soviet activists or nationalists. Women were kept in separate barracks and camp guards forbidden men to have contacts with women and severely punished them when such contacts were made. There were woman who gave birth to children in the camp and were forced to live in harsh environment. Before camp liquidation the many women were sent France or Germany, some released under police watch.

Salaspils camp was also prison for sentenced members of the Latvian Waffen SS and Police battalions. These were soldiers who broke the rules. disobeyed orders or tried to desert. Also for avoiding military service. Some reports say that Norwegians, Dutch, Poles, Finns, Danes and even two French from Alsace were in the camp that were sent there for military offenses. On May 1944 the Lithuanian general Povils Plehavičus with his staff was sent to Salaspils. Plehavičus and his supporters were forming Lithuanian Local Brigade to resist the return of the Soviets and was seen as attempt to restore Lithuanian army by the Germans. Pļehavičus who was anti-communist complained that he is in the sane camp with many sentenced for supporting communism and demanded transfer threatening hunger strike.  They were released few months later. While most Latvian and Lithuanian soldiers were given second chance the life in the camp for Soviets POW’s was harsher. Soviet sources say that 47 000 soviet POW’S died at Salaspils without stating how they got that number. On 1942 in Latvia there was 59 805 POW’S and by October 43 0060 as many were sent to Germany. Salaspils camp contained only 10% of the Soviet POW’S of the Stalag-350 POW camp system. So it was nearly impossible to kill so many people at Salaspils camp. However, it’s confirmed that 500 disable Soviet soldiers unable to move themselves were killed at the time of the camp evacuation.

Salaspils served also as transit camp. As from 1943 German army was in retreat in the Eastern front the Nazis tried to sort out refugees and people useful for work. The refugees from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus were sent to filtration camps. In Latvia they were settled in Daugavpils, Rēzekne, and Strenči and Salaspils was suggested but then ruled out. However, there was individual case in 1944 when refugees from Belarus were filtrated in Salaspils. On 1943 there was 43 000 evacuated Russians on 1944 152 576. However, Salaspils was mainly a transit camp for captured civilians from Russia and Belarus who were intended by SD to be taken away to Germany.

On 1943 Germans issued operation to combat Soviet partisan movement in Belarus. The order was to destroy the villages around partisan infested zones and deport civilians away from them. The Operation  Winter Magic (Operation Winterzauber) took place from February 15 to early April. Near Latvian-Belarusian border the area was controlled by partisans and order was to clear the 40 km wide zone clear of civilian population supporting the partisans. 7465 people were held captive and then sent to Salaspils for filtration. The work able would be sent to Germany. Not all of them were sent as large numbers of weak and old were shot on the march to Salaspils. In two rounds about 4000 people entered Salaspils. Since the whole families were deported the children were within the prisoners. In February 1943 1100 children entered Salaspils. On second transport 1000 children were sent. Children were often separated from their families sent to nurseries or rural works. Camp authorities tried to sort out and disinfect the captives as fast as possible to send them further so never in camp history all the captives were in camp in one place.

Another anti-partisan operation Winter Journey took place in Latvian eastern region of Latgale to punish and deport the supporters of partisans. 3284 people were taken captive, 985 men, 1285 women and 1041 children. As before children were separated sent to relatives or unknown people.

The main cause of death in most cases around the inmates was diseases and starvation. The living environment was insanitary, food rations were low and work conditions were brutal. People died from typhus that was brought in by captives from Operation Winter Magic. The medical branch of camp was tasked to disinfect, remove louses as fast as possible and process was carried brutally. Children often caught dysentery, measles and other sickness. There was no medication so every sickness was a danger. Typhus epidemic killed more than 100 people. Documentary sources state that 700 people died from malnutrition.

Children in the camp were treated harshly. They were sent to quarantine collectively and treated with brutality. Then the most precarious moment was the separation from their parents. Parents were given only one minute to say goodbye to their children. Many children saw their parents for the last time. The Nazi propaganda made film shots of camp doctors disinfecting the children while barrack guards made children to dance and play music for their amusement.  When children barrack was hit by diarrhea the children went to barrack guards to dance and sing to get diarrhea pills. About 3000 children were in the camps at various times. Many hundreds died from starvation and epidemics and bad treatment. However, after few months of captivity they were sent to nurseries or adopted. The terrible living conditions and treatment separation from family is highest crime against these children. However, there is no sources that confirm the Soviet allegations of mass killings of children and blood removal in large numbers. Soviet investigation placed a lot of effort to investigate the fates of the children in the camp. Soviet reports concluded 7000 children died in the camp and based on testimonies of 33 people there was regular blood taking procedure imposed on captive children. Most of these testimonies  contained many numbers of overall captives, but contained no explanations of how the witnesses knew these facts. Some testimonies contained nearly impossible facts that do not correspond to logic and reality. The Soviet documents contain no information how the investigation committee came to their conclusions and number of causalities and inmates.  The accusations on deliberate blood collection from children were often based on rumors and suspicion from witnesses whose blood was not collected. Many interrogated sanitarians denied the fact there was widespread blood collection from children. Also there are not confirmations of the accusations of children poisoning and experimenting. The story about 3500 liters of blood taken from children for the German Red Cross is probably based on rumors, false stories and errors in investigation. There was no logical reason for mass blood collecting without determining the blood type that would make blood transfer out of question. On 1943 because of issues the German medical authority canceled the use of blood doses in the Eastern Front instead preferring direct transfer. Also the blood transport to Western front from Latvia would be costly and unreliable process.  Blood collecting took place, but not in large-scale and mostly for medical reasons as doctors tried to limit the spread of diseases that would endanger not only children but also adult workers.

Most deaths were in the camp were caused by famine and diseases. However, many died from repeated brutal punishments. People were punished for not working, speculation, gambling and other disobeying orders. Death penalties were issued for trying or planning to escape or planning an uprising. There were few events hangings in front of other inmates. 19 people were killed or injured during escape attempts. There were few mass killings such as at the end of 1943 when 30-35 people from Riga were brought in shot by the SD firing squad. 16 prisoners who were brought in from Rēzekne and Daugavpils prison were shot because they were sick with typhus. There are no viable sources that proof the claim that there were gas chambers in the camp.

The end of the mass sufferings of the Daugavpils camp came to September 29 1944 when because of approaching Soviets the camp was liquidated. By then the camp had already very small number of prisoners and it had suffered a Soviet air strike destroying one of the barracks. Before the liquidation many inmates were released but disabled inmates were shot. Last inmates left the camp on September 29 1944. Camp was burned down before the Soviets could capture it.

Salaspils was camp of suffering and horror and until this day there are still many unanswered questions and discussions about the number of inmates and number of people killed there. The latest research published this year concludes that from 1942 to 1944 the camp had 21 855-23 035 prisoners 11 735 of them were transit prisoners being here for a limited time. 400-500 people died from starvation. 100-150 died from harsh work environment. Four people were hanged. 19 people were shot during escape attempts. 6 were shot after being caught trying to escape. 31 were killed for planning uprising. 80 disabled people were murdered. 11 735 people including children who were sent to Salaspils from Belarus or Latgale died from various causes. 500 Soviet disabled POW’S were executed. The total of 1952 people died in the Salaspils camp.

The research shows that Soviet estimates of number of casualties were greatly exaggerated. Soviet post war investigation although valuable, holds within many inaccuracies, deliberate exaggerations for ideological reasons. Russian media has already condemned these research results as re-writing of history and turning into Salaspils “death camp” into “resort”. However, the lesser number of victims than thought before does not make the camp less horrifying.  It was nevertheless a horrid place ruining people’s lives and comparing to its actual size of inmates it had a very high dead toll. This is not “re-writing” of history as these facts by no means justify the Nazi crimes. Instead these facts make the accusations more concrete against the Nazi regime and downplay the revisionist claims of exaggeration of the Nazi crimes. Today Latvian historians are making the Latvian history more concrete and fact based contrary to Russia where there is actual re writing of history trying to hide the Stalinist crimes.  Let us remember and commemorate the victims of the Salaspils camp and let their fates known in the history.

Sculptures at the Salaspils memorial

Sculptures at the Salaspils memorial

Selected Sources: 

Kangeris, Kārlis, Neiburgs Uldis, Vīksne Rudīte. Aiz šiem vārtiem vaid zeme. Salaspils nometne 1941.-1944. Rīga. Lauku Avīze.2016.

Strautmanis, I, Asaris, G. Padomju Latvijas memoriālie ansambļi. Rīga. Zinātne. 1986.

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Roma Genocide in Latvia 1941-1944

Èigânu masu apbedîjumi Valguma meþâ. Anatolijs Berezovskis un Lûcija Ignis

The mass killing site at Valguma lake near Tukums

One of the less discussed events of the Latvian history is Roma Genocide that took place in Latvia during Nazi occupation. Called Porajmos in Romani language the Roma genocide was part of the Holocaust directed against Jews, mentally ill, homosexuals and Roma’s who lived in significant populations across the Eastern Europe. The death toll of Nazi killed Roma’s  estimated  220,000 to 1,500,000 people. Genocide against Roma took place also in Latvia, where they been living for centuries.

The Roma people have been originated from ancient India and appeared in Europe in Middle Ages as early of 12th century. By practicing nomadic lifestyle they appeared all over Europe including Britain on 16th century. The largest concentrations of them were in Eastern Europe, Poland-Lithuania, Moravia and Wallachia. Roma’s managed to keep their eastern traditions and independent lifestyle often defying the laws of the ruling society. Some Roma communities started continuous settlements. Their differences in looks and culture often sparked hatred and prejudices.

The Nazi movement combined all the prejudices in united policy of hate and persecution. However, Nazis had difficulties labeling all Roma’s as subhuman (Untermenchen) because of their “Aryan origin” that Nazis considered the prime race. Also it was inconvenient that most consequent nomadic Roma’s were those of “most purest Aryan”. To “solve” the problem the racial specialist Dr. Robert Ritter lead research team to determine the racial status of Roma people. By examining 2000 people they came to conclusion that 90% of Roma are mixed with other Europeans and therefore sent to “mischlinge” (crossbreeds) category. They were labeled as anti-social and dangerous to the Nazi regime.  This conclusion now made 90% of Roma’s in danger of persecution. The 1935 Nuremberg racial laws were also applicable to  Roma’s. First group of German Roma’s were sent to Dachau camp  on 1936. The Dr. Ritter’s “research group” considered Roma’s to be sterilized and excluded from the society; that also applied to the “racial pure” Roma. On 1937 all Roma were ordered to move to special containment camps (Zwangswohnlager) and on 1938-1939 even more Roma’s were “preventively arrested” and sent to concentration camps. The start of the World War II opened the extermination phase as Roma’s were deported to the occupied Poland where their extermination begun. On December 16 1942 Heinrich Himmler ordered to send all Roma’s and mixed ones to Auschwitz death camp. Before that on 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded Soviet Union the extermination of the local Roma have already begun.

It’s not known when Roma’s settled in Latvian territory. Possibly after 1561 when former Livonian Confederation became part of Poland-Lithuania. The Romani language in Latvia has four dialects, in Courland (Kurzeme) and Semigallia (Zemgale) most common is so called “Latvian romani” (lotfitka roma), in Latgale the “Northern Russian romani” (xaladitka roma) and Belarusian and Polish language affected Romani. The last Latvian  national census in 1935 counted 3839 Romas. 234 lived in Riga. Large concentrations of them were in Jelgava, Daugavpils, Talsi, Ventspils, Rēzekne, Valmiera, and Tukums. Large numbers of them lived in regular homes. While encountering usual prejudice; labeling as “horse thieves”, “vagrants” and “tax and army service evaders” no serous acts of violence against Roma were ever recorded in Latvia. Latvians called Roma Čigāni (the gypsies) and this therm was used in press and official documents.

Its possible the Roma population in Latvia was larger then according to the 1935 census data. On June 1941 there could have been about 12 000 Roma people living in Latvia.  The first killings were made by the German Einsatzgruppen and assisting Latvian collaborator units. One of the first killing sites were Baltinava township in Eastern Latvia were 10 Roma families – 43 people were murdered in August 1941.  The Roma genocide really started on December 1941 when Nazis had finished the genocide of the Latvian Jews.  90 people were killed in Kalvene parish near town of Aizpute in Western Latvia. In Liepāja the full list of murdered Roma’s were found, only one such in Latvia. 100 Roma’s are mentioned in Nazi report to be shot in the Ciecere parish. The 1935 data had 176 Roma’s living in Liepāja. Tukums a city located between Kurzeme (Courland) and Zemgale region had large population of Roma. Inconclusive reports from interrogated Nazi suspects states that about 200-300 Roma’s were killed. Tukums had 233 Roma’s on 1935. The town of Bauska near Lithuania border had fairly large Roma population. It’s known that 250 people of all ages were killed in Jaunsaule parish. The people from nearby township of Skaistkalne were also murdered there. Fourth largest city Jelgava had 401 Roma’s 200 of them were destroyed although the data is inconclusive. 200 Roma’s were possibly killed in Ludza district in Latgale region. The heart town of Latgale Rēzekne had 130 Roma’s arrested on January 5 1942 and possibly concentrated in former synagogue or empty shop space nearby and then murdered at Garbari forest near Zvirgzdene township. During the Audriņi massacre on January 2,4 1942 when Germans murdered 215 local villagers for hiding the soviet partisans, several Roma’s were killed who lived nearby. 50 Roma’s were shot near the Valmiera concentration camp. There is very fewer details about the Roma genocide in Riga. It’s possible that Romas were shot in Jugla, Strazumuiža, Biķernieki Forest, Strazdumuiža railway station and other parts of Riga. Similarly fewer details are about the fate of Roma’s in Daugavpils where is known that 5 Romas were shot in the Daugavpils prison. Similar obscure details are about Ventspils.

Current research estimates conclude that about 2000 Latvian Romas were killed during the Nazi occupation. Half of the Roma 3839 population of 1935. As mentioned the real size of the Roma population on 1941 could be more larger than official data meaning the number of victims could be larger than 2000 people.

Kārlis Krūminš the savior of the 200 Roma at Talsi district

Kārlis Krūminš the savior of the 200 Roma at Talsi district

The Nazi policy towards Roma people changed on 1943 when the guidelines now separated Romas in nomadic and non-nomadic Romas. The regular living ones were considered as rural citizens, while nomads were equaled with Jews. That halted the active killing and saved lives of many. However, in some parts of Latvia the killings were avoided because of the involvement of the local populace. The chief of the Talsi district Kārlis Krūmiņš resisted the German order to exterminate all Roma’s for they are required for workforce and bear no danger to the district. Some days after this decision Lutheran Archbishop Teodors Grīnbers gathered all Roma’s to a mass and told they must be thankful to Krūmiņš for rescuing their lives. He pledged them to work hard for the German army. About 200 Roma’s in Talsi district were kept alive this way. Krūmiņš was later arrested by the Soviets where he gave testimonies of how he saved the Roma from the murder. Nevertheless, he was sent to Gulag as traitor. Another Roma savior was Mārtiņš Bērziņš the head of the Sabile city in Kurzeme. According to some reports the Roma’s were gathered at the killing site when Bērziņš in the nick of time rushed with a bicycle and stood in front of the shooters and declared: “If you shoot them; then shoot me too!” Local shooters were unable to do so and about 300 Roma’s were spared. Bērziņš was saved from the 1949 deportations by his Roma supporters and died in Dundaga on 1968. Bērziņš also warned local Jews of coming execution. Later a memorial plate in Sabile was unveiled to commemorate his heroic act. Both Krūmiņš and Bērziņš can be compared to Žanis Lipke the most famous Jewish savior from Latvia.

The facts about the Roma genocide in Latvia is found in the Soviet Emergency Investigation Commission documents. The commission persecuted all the captured Nazi collaborators and disclosed their crimes towards Jewish and Roma people. So far the most detailed research have been made by Aigars Urtāns about Bauska district while general research is still lacking. Jewish historian Marģers Vestermanis first opened the subject on 1993 with his publication about the Roma genocide in Latvia. On 2015 the senior chief Commissar of the International Roma Alliance made publication based on archive documents. More detailed publications are expected in the future. So far there have been no memorial plates and monuments dedicated to the victims of the Roma genocide in Latvia. Despite active calls from Roma community the process of research and remembrance have been very slow by comparing to the amount of work contributed to Jewish holocaust. Its one of the sad parts of the Latvian history that must be researched further and included in our memory of the past.

Selected Sources:

Rudēvičs, Normunds. (2015) Romu Holokausts Latvijā. Konferenču un semināru materiāli 2009-2014. Shamir. Rīga, 2015

Vestermanis, Marģers. Čigānu genocīds vācu okupētajā Latvijā (1941.-1945). Latvijas Vēsture 1993/4 (11)

Urtāns, Aigars (2003), “Bauskas pilsētas un apriņķa čigānu iznīcināšana 1942. gada vasarā”, in: Dzintars Ērglis (ed.), Holokausta izpētes jautājumi Latvijā: Staptautiskā semināra referāti 2001. gada 29. novembris, Rīgā, un 2001.–2002. gada pētījumi par holokaustu Latvijā / The Issues of the Holocaust Research in Latvia: Reports of an International Seminar 29 November 2001, Riga and the Holocaust Studies in Latvia in 2001–2002.

http://www.la.lv/romu-glabejs-talsos%E2%80%A9-krumins/

http://www.ntz.lv/dazadi/mums-nevajag-atvainosanos-tikai-3-faktu-atzisanu/

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Zionist movement in Latvia 1918-1940

The elected Jewish politicians in the middle the Latvian Zionist leader Mordehai Nurok

The elected Jewish politicians in the middle the Latvian Zionist leader Mordehai Nurok

On 18-19th century the nationalist movement became popular among many nations among Europe. Nationalist idea presented the unity by ethnic and cultural means and formation of a national state. For each nation the nationalism manifested in different ways. For French and British nationalism evolved into imperialism. For nations under foreign rule like Latvians the nationalism evolved into struggle for self determination. For the Jewish people their unique position in Europe made them create a specific type of nationalism – Zionism. For the nation left without homeland living in Diaspora among many places of the world the Zionism meant many things. First the rejection of assimilation and conversion to Christianity instead openly display their Jewish identity and demand equal rights in countries they lived. Second the ultimate goal – the creation of a Jewish state in their historical homeland in Middle East. Zionist movement appeared in late 19th century and reached Latvia that had significant Jewish population. At first it was rather weak, but after the foundation of the Republic of Latvia it became prominent even among other Jewish movements among Europe. This article is about these Zionist movements in Latvia, who were they and what they meant for Latvians and the Jews.

The Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook born in Grīva, Latvia

The Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook born in Grīva, Latvia

The term Zionism was first used by Nathan Birnbum on 1982 in Vienna. The roots of the idea were at least 20 years older and expressed by thinkers including Rabbi from Bauska Mordechai Eliasberg who said people is only possible in their homeland. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook who was born the Grīva present day Latvia on 1865. He is regarded as one of the most prominent religious thinkers who developed these ideas further. Ultimately this Latvia born scholar became the first Chief Rabbi of the Ashkenazi Jews in British Mandate of Palestine. But, the Zionist idea on the political level was raised by Jewish physician from Odessa Leo Pinsker. His book Auto-Emancipation published in Berlin on 1882 outlined the idea of the political Zionism. In his pamphlet he urged his fellow Jewish people to strive for independence and self-determination and reject assimilation and conversion that will not entirely remove anti-semitism. A state governed by Jews in the place of their own was further elaborated by Theodor Herzl in his Judenstaat – The Jewish State on 1896 and made the zionist idea widespread. There was a reason why one of the first proponents of Jewish national idea came from Russian Empire like Rabbi Cook and Leo Pinsker – the Jewish rights were in backwards state comparing to Western Europe. Thats why the ideas of Leo Pinsker where not generally accepted in Germany but praised in Russia.

The first Zionist organization in Russia was BILU society on 1882. On 1884 it was replaced by Hovevei Zion society. They established branches in Liepāja, Daugavpils, Krustpils, Bauska and other cities within present day Latvia. They did not manage to start colonization of Palestine owned by the Ottoman Empire. The boost was given by more practical ideas of Theodor Herzl and formed in the First Zionist Congress in Basel Switzerland on 1897. Russia’s Jews faced pogroms as early as from 1880ies causing them to look for common political ideology of defiance. Herzl works were known in Latvia and evolved in different movements. Some called them Palestiophiles, among them V Kaplan, L Shalit,  Z Berman J Tron and others. They split up in political and spiritual Zionists. The third movement was Socialist Zionism organized in movement Poaley Zion and Ceire Zion who worked in Riga, Daugavpils, Ludza, Tukums and many other places. They were outscored by the Bund who were Jewish Marxists who played major role in the 1905 revolution and enjoyed greater popularity. As Marxists they rejected national and religious ideas instead focused on social issues and rights of the Jewish workers.

The First World War disrupted the lives of Jews in Latvia. Many were deported from combat areas in false accusations of spying, many took refuge by themselves. Large portion of them ended up in Russia. Together with Latvians, the Jews had the most organized refugee support societies. After the fall of the Russian monarchy on 1917 the Jewish movement split up in many ways. Many joined the Bolsheviks, others stayed true to the social-democracy regarded as Mensheviks. The Bund in Latvia rejected the communist party. Others in the light of the events in Palestine saw chance in revival of Zionism. The 1917 Balfour Declaration promising “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” however failed to match the Zionist expectations. The Zionist Leader Chaim Weizmann made agreement with Arab leader Emir Faisal for Jewish-Arab cooperation that would give Palestine to Jews, while Faisal receives a united Arab kingdom within Syria, Lebanon and Iraq. Faisal’s logic was that Jews were wise and rich enough to turn Palestinian desert into garden while Arabs have the great kingdom in Baghdad and Damascus. However, the Allied powers failed his expectations by creating the Palestinian Mandate governed by British, giving Syria to France and Iraq to UK.  Such betrayal to the both to Arabs and Jews created a decades of war and hate still not solved until this day.

Meanwhile for Jews in Latvia there were three choices: support the Bolshevik Latvian Soviet Republic that was hostile to religion and national self-determination.  Support the Germanic Baltic Duchy that may give some rights to the Jewish minority or support the Republic of Latvia that promised equal rights for all nationalities in Latvia. At first the third choice did not seem obvious- the Latvian Provisional Government was weak and seemed short lived. However, some Jewish representatives joined the Latvian Peoples Council from the start. After the victories over Bolsheviks and Germans on the summer of 1919 the third choice was now the primary one. More than 1000 Jews took part in the ranks of the Latvian army. Some were decorated. After the independence was won it was time for Jews in Latvia to make out what is best for themselves.

The Republic of Latvia was a champion of the minority rights in the post war Europe. Jews finally had chance for their own schools supported by state, cultural movements and political parties to elect in parliament and local municipalities. The 93 479 Jews in Latvia (according to 1935 census) were different kind of people. Some of them were traders, shopkeepers, craftsmen, doctors, teachers, workers and poor. And different was their political and even religious views. In 20 years of independence the Jews in Latvia failed to create united organization to represent the entire Jewish community. The zionists were not united among themselves. The socialists and orthodox opposed them and each other. So the Jewish political climate in Latvia was diverse.

Zionism in Latvia had many wings. The Histadrut Chazionist party founded on 1919 represented the general right wing bourgeoisie Jews. They had sections in all Latvia, their idea was to create a national zionist center in Palestine and improve the lives of Jews within Diaspora. Other aspect of their ideology was to increase the Jewish involvement in the agricultural and industrial sector. Party was influential at first but failed to get elected in parliament only in some municipalities. Only the Constitutional Assembly from 1920  to 1922 had one elect Zh Thorn. The party contributed to the creation of the Palestine Bureau that was a center of communications between Zionists in Latvia and the settlers in Palestine. Also it organized the emigration from Latvia to Palestine. Party made many youth organizations Chatio (Hope), Bney Zion (the sons of Zion), and Herzlia. The youth organizations worked in cultural, sports and social fields.

An alternative Zionist movement was the religious Zionism movement Mizrachi. Judaism was the main force uniting Jews around the world. However, Judaism was not primary nationalistic and rejected political solution to the Jewish problems. As mentioned before the two Rabbis from Latvia Mordechai Eliasberg and Abraham Isaac Kook were the ones who promoted the middle way between secular and religious solution. The idea of combining both truths for the common good of the Jewish people created the religious Zionism that accepted secular state as part of the messianic way. The religious values can be kept in the Jewish state, thus for the religious Jew moving back to their ethnic homeland is a obligation and the Zionism is the will of G-d. Not all orthodox   Jews agreed on that, however the Mizrachi party in Latvia was quite influential.

Nuroks

Mordechai Nurock (left) speaks to the president of Latvia Alberts Kviesis (right)

 Mizrachi (the Religious Center) party was run by rabbi Mordechai Nurock was born in Tukums on November 7 1879. He served as rabbi in Jelgava, on 1903 he took part in the Zionist Congress. He moved to Russia during the war and played key role in refugee organizations. He also joined the All-Russian Jewish Committee and established a religious Jewish group known as “Tradition and Freedom”. On 1921 he returned to Latvia and was elected in the parliament. He was consequently elected in next three elections until 1934. Nurock was active man, both in Latvia and abroad. He cooperated with many organizations and contributed to their work. He was well recognized among the Latvian politicians, his main allies however were the Social-Democrats who were mostly in the oppositions. The anti-semitic Latvian press always pointed to Nurock as the main patron of the two short lived leftist coalitions. But, Nurock was just and tolerant towards his opponents and supported democracy. The coup by Kārlis Ulmanis on May 15 1934 came to his disappointment and created opposition. In result his movement was rejected by the regime. On 1940 the Soviets exiled him to Turkmenistan. His wife and two children were killed in the Holocaust, while he was freed on 1947 and moved to Palestine. After the creation of the State of Israel he was elected in the Israeli Knesset on 1952 he was elected as minister of Postal service, he was also a candidate for the President of Israel. He served in the Knesset until his death on 1962 November 8 becoming the most successful Zionist from Latvia who actually took part in creation of Israel.

However, there were people who rejected the both general secular way and the religious way.  They were the left wing Zionists or Socialist Zionists. Already mentioned  the Poalie Zion (The Workers of Zion) and Ceirei Zion were already known before WWI. In socially unequal Latvia the left wing Zionism was apparently popular. Their leader Max Laserson was elected in many elections and stood united with social democrat organization. One of his main ideas was the Jewish Political and Cultural autonomy in Latvia greatly extending the Jewish rights. Also Baltic Germans and Russians pushed for the same making the Latvian legislators fear the creation of “state within state”. His proposals were not entirely rejected but politely “delayed” in parliamentary commissions. His socialism was not radical but more moderate achieving unity and progress in both national and social means. The left wing Zionists opposed the idea employed by the right wing and religious Zionists that Hebrew language used only in Torah and religious rituals should be brought to life.  Instead they insisted on keeping Yiddish the mix of Hebrew and German that was main language for Jews in the Eastern Europe. Not all Jews in Latvia used Yiddish as primary language. In Courland and Riga some preferred German; in Latgale some spoke only Russian. The both parties argued over the teaching of Hebrew in schools and the common ground was not achieved; some schools taught only in Hebrew, some in Yiddish. But, Hebrew was never used in the daily lives of the Latvian Jews.

On 1931 the Ceirei Zion united with their counterpart Zionist-Socialist party and created the United Party of Zionists-Socialists of Latvia”. But, the new force never made it to elections on 1934 after the coup they were banned by the anti-left wing Ulmanis regime. Max Laserson survived the Holocaust and made it to Israel and was elected in Knesset.

Zeev_Jabotinsky

Zeev Jabotinsky

The Zionist movement was not complete without its far right wing. And Latvia played significant part in it. After the Zionist hopes to achieve statehood with the help of the Balfour declaration failed there was common sense of disappointment. The parties mentioned above continued to work on diplomatic solution and start colonization of Palestine. However, the hostility between Arabs and the new settlers resulted in violence. Palestine was not entirely devoid of Jews before the start of Zionist movement. The small Jewish population living there for centuries were generally tolerated by the Muslims who came there on 6th century. However, now the influx of the new settlers raised hostility boosted by the British inability to control situation in their mandate. This made some to come to conclusion that the only way to achieve Zionist goals is using radical force, by using self defense and armed response both to British and Arabs. This was a radical thinking for Jews in those times, as Jews living in other countries had no real militaristic tradition since the fall of Kingdom of Israel. The main leader of these people was Ze’ev Jabotinsky. Born in Odessa 1880 October 18 Jabotinsky started as moderate Zionist. He came to militarism during WWI when he pushed for the Jewish Legion within the British Army to fight the Ottomans. In 1915, together with Joseph Trumpeldor, a one-armed veteran of the Russo-Japanese War, he created the Zion Mule Corps, he saw action in Palestine as Lieutenant within the 38th Royal Fusiliers. After demobilized he started to train Jewish Self Defense corps. After his unit was repressed by the British he became even more radical. In 1920, Jabotinsky was elected to the first Assembly of Representatives in Palestine. The following year he was elected to the executive council of the Zionist Organization. He was also a founder of the newly registered Keren Hayesod and served as its director of propaganda But after having major disagreements with moderate leading Zionists he left the Zionist Organization.

Jabotinsky considered that his political carrier is over. Then he was invited to Latvia and Lithuania to hold lectures. On 1923 he arrived in Riga to speak in  front of student organization Hatiho. As he preached his radical views he was told that he has no rights to preach them if he is not intending to create a political movement. That made Jabotinsky think over his intention the local students of Riga inspired him to start a new political movement called Zionist Revisionism. It was to revise the Zionist policy that failed to achieve its goals on 1917.

The logo of the Jabotisky Betar

The logo of the Jabotisky Betar

As Riga was the cradle of the revisionist movement the first of its organization was established in Latvia. The Latvian Union of Zionists-Revisionists came to being on 1925. The main Jabotinsky organization Betar is claimed to be founded in Riga. Betar soon spread all around the Europe and made its way in US and even Australia. In Palestine the Betar was often viewed by the British as terrorist organization. Some more radical offspring’s as the so called Stern Gang  or Lehi and Irgun were responsible for terrorist acts against the British like the King David Hotel bombing and the murder of the UN negotiator Folk Bernadotte on 1948. But, Jabotinsky movement major achievement was the contribution of making strong Jewish military to defend the new state of Israel. The Israeli Defense Force was created from these Jewish self defense units. Also major political parties like Likud and Kadima are followers of the Zionist-Revisionist movement. Without the Zionist-Revisionists the creation of Israel would not be possible and the fact that Riga was the starting point of this movement puts Riga as important place in the history of Israel.

The other wing of Zionist Revisonism active also in Latvia was Joseph Trupeldor movement. Joseph Trupeldor was a charismatic war hero that became famous in the Battle of Tel Hai on March 1 1920 where died in battle. Already famous war leader he was recognized as the national hero. To his honor a youth organization “Brit Josef Trumpeldor” (The Union of Josef Trupeldor) was created and was active in Latvia. The organization employed a militaristic lifestyle, marched in uniforms and often were called the “Jewish Fascists” because of their brownish uniforms. The brown color was to resemble the Palestinian desert and brown British uniform Trumpeldor wore. The organization made major contribution to youth sport and education.

There were two major opponents of Zionists among Jews in Latvia. The Bund that was the oldest socialist party in Russian Empire was still true to their pre-1918 views and rejected nationalism. They also opposed the teaching of Hebrew. Other major opponent was Agudat Isroel lead by Rabbi Mordechai Dubin. Influential politician and businessman was a Orthodox Jew who opposed moving to Palestine and create a new state before the arrival of the Messiah. Instead he pushed for staying in Latvia and maintain the religious traditions. He supported the teaching of Hebrew but only for religious means. Dubin who once even visited the US president Herbert Hover, had great influence on the Latvian politicians even Kārlis Ulmanis. Dubin however broke his principals when he made major effort to save thousands of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany stranded in Latvia. One part of them was sent by him to Palestine because for Dubin the main prinicipal was to save help his common people regardless of his views.

Kārlis Ulmanis banned all the Zionist parties after his takeover. But, he banned every party regardless their nationality even his own Lavian Farmers Union. But, Ulmanis was not against Zionism in general as he saw nothing wrong of Jews moving away from Latvia and leaving more space for Latvians. Zionists except left wingers worked and non-political movements. The marching Trumpeldor’s were tolerated by Ulmanis. Then came the 1940 when the Soviet occupation closed all the Jewish societies and took over their property. Many of the Zionist leaders were arrested, sent to Siberia or shot. A year later Nazis destroyed the entire Jewish population in Latvia.

But the story of the Zionist movement in Latvia does not end with that. While the surviving Zionists worked in Israel, the Zionist movement, the Jewish national movement in Latvia appeared again in 1960ies as response to the anti-semitic Soviet policy. But that is another story to be told in future.

Selected Sources:

Волкович, Б. (2012) Сионистское движение в Латвии (1918-1940) 2-е изд., доп. Daugavpils

Sinkēviča, Eva (2014) Reliģiskā cionisma kustība Latvijā: vēsture,organizācija, ietekme. Promocijas darbs. Latvijas Universitātes Teoloģijas fakultāte.

Walter, Laquer (2003) A History of Zionism. From the French Revolution to establishment of the Sate of  Israel. Shocken Books. New York.

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The start of World war II on the territory of Latvia and its occupation by Nazi Germany

After facing brutal Soviet occupation, majority of Latvians celebrated Germans as liberators. However the Nazis got their own sinister plans for Latvians and Jews.

On June 22 1941 Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Although the fact that both sides had signed a non–aggression treaty at 1939 August 23 Nazi Germany decided to attack its former partner state. This decision was based on Adolf Hitler mistrust on the Soviet Union and his desires for expansion in the east. The outbreak of war was crucial for Jews since it changed Nazi Jewish policy towards the “final solution”. Before that Nazi leaders had unclear visions how to “solve” the Jewish question. After the Nazi occupation of Poland Adolf Hitler first approved plans for Jewish deportation from Eastern Europe. The desired place was the island of Madagascar in Indian Ocean. This plan was taken for serious consideration until new plans to invade the Soviet Union.  Soviet Union was inhabited by 5 million Jews that made the deportation plan impossible. Thus Madagascar was not even controlled by Germany.  On  March 13 Hitler then entrusted SS to fulfill special tasks for preparation of political administration that allowed SS Einzatssgruppen to operate in the territory of the Soviet Union On June 6 1941, the Nazis issued so called Commissar Order, which ordered to kill all the Soviet officials.  Although Jews were not directly mentioned in the order it laid down plans for further treatment of the whole population of the Soviet Union. At  June 17 chief of German Security Service Reinhard Heydrich met with all four Einzatsgruppen commanders and set out the goals and assignments for the invasion.  Although they knew their goal of destroying all Jews of Soviet Union, it’s not known if they had received direct orders of it. It is however known that on  July 17 three weeks after the initial invasion Heydrich ordered to kill all Jewish POWS.  Already at July 2 he has instructed to kill all Jews that were members of the Soviet Communist party.   However, most Hitler’s orders concerning Jews were oral and documents were written in concession form, leaving vast explanations.  A direct order ordering destruction of Jews of Soviet Union has never been found. Hitler was over optimistic about his campaign and wanted to clear the vast territories of the Soviet Union from people he considered unneeded. The idea of Lebensraum (the living space for Germans) obsessed the minds of Nazi leaders and set bad prospects for nations living in the Soviet Union. In the event of victory Nazi regime would also Germanize Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians, but first victims of their blacklist were Jews. Another aspect of this order was Hitler’s belief that the Soviet Union is controlled by Jews and Marxism was invented by them. So the destruction of Jews was an important aspect of Hitler’s struggle against Marxism.

First battles in the territory of Latvia started in  June 23 in Liepaja. The city was taken in hard street fights in  June 28. German army reached Riga at  June 29, and captured it on July 1. The city was taken with fewer fighting then Liepaja, but suffered sustained damage on parts of Old Riga. On June 26 German 56 Tank group led by general Erich von Manstein captured Daugavpils. The Red army failed to recapture the city and Germans gained control over the right coast of River Daugava so Soviets were forced to retreat. German tank formations crushed trough Soviet lines and on  July 2, Soviets began a chaotic retreat to the East. In  July 5 military activity in Latvia was over.

German invasion in 22. June 1941.

This study will discuss problems of the start of war in Latvia from June 22 to July. The first part describes various Latvian nationalist organizations and their preparation for the destruction of Jews. The second part will take a look on pro–nazi underground in Latvia, was there such in how it was involved in the destruction of Jews.

German plans for Latvia

Adolf Hitler already stated in his book “Mein Kampf” that Russia must be new living space for Germans. All Eastern Europe must go through radical ethnic reforms to fulfill the domination of the German race. Jews, Slavs and Baltic peoples were supposed to go through ethnic cleansing to make the Soviet Union a “garden of Eden” for “superior German race”. Hitler did not consider the independence of Latvia, as it should be added to German Lebensraum.  Baltic German Alfred Rosenberg – the Nazi philosopher had large affection on Hitler’s ideas. He made Hitler believe that Jews and Bolsheviks are one in the same. He also taught Hitler about Baltic peoples, in  July 11 1941 Hitler had said that Estonians are “elite” of the Baltic people, then comes Lithuanians, last are Latvians.  Hitler also said that Stalin used Latvians for his executions that Russian dreaded to do themselves. Latvians were also in charge of killings in old Russian Empire according to him.

Latvia was designed for colonization, and Latvians were thought as the “dying race” and should be replaced with more energetic Germans. About 10 to 30% Latvians were considered eligible for Germanisation but the rest must be deported.  Such intentions are found in Dr. Wetzel letter to Heinrich Himmler where he strives for mentioned goals,   Also more detailed Nazi view on Latvian problem can be found in head of the political department of Ostland Trampedach report,  The designed plan was called General Plan Ost. Modern German historians call it the racist utopia.  Luckily, the Germans wanted to that with Latvians after the victory, but since it never came Latvians escaped a bitter danger for their survival. Ultimately, Latvians would meet the same fate as the Jews.  However, Jews were first on the German list, and they had to be destroyed before the victory.

German plans for “spontaneous” anti-Jewish pogroms

There is no direct order known for killing the Jews in Latvia. However, we have a set of SD chief Reinhard Heydrich instructions to General Walter Stahlecker and other Einsatzgruppen leaders to conceal the killings and to make it appear as that the “natives” were doing it.  These instructions were spoken in  June 17 1941. The unambiguous plan was to induce “spontaneous” anti-Jewish pogroms by the local peoples. Also a part of concealment was to film and photograph the killing actions performed by the “natives” but to avoid doing the same with the Germans.   Those instructions can be found in Einsatzgruppe A report on October 15 1941.  It was a sign that “spontaneous” “self-purification” actions done by Latvians were a cover-up by Germans.

The Latvian Nationalist organizations

To do such devious plan Germans required local collaborators from national circles. Not all nationalists are necessarily radicals and anti-Semites. Such people can be found in radical nationalist parties and organizations. From 1919 to 1939, nationalism was the popular ideology across Europe and was no stranger to Latvia. In fact, Latvia itself was built on national principles. However, the constitution of Latvia (Satversme) clearly stated that the rights of citizens belong to all people living in Latvia not just Latvian nation. Minorities were accepted in culture and politics and had a visible presence in national affairs. Such form of nationalism is to be called “democratic nationalism” that was official state ideology throughout the years. More radical national groups that often showed xenophobia and chauvinism objected such concept. These men called themselves “active nationalists”. They were strongly against Bolshevism, democratic party system and most visibly against national minorities. While Latvian nationalists had always despised Baltic Germans, Jews became even more targeted by them. Anti-Semitism was a rather new phenomenon among Latvians. First anti-Semitic references were published late 19th Century where Jews were accused of treachery and doing harm for Latvian economy.  However at that time more serious was Russian imposed anti-Semitism than Latvian. The swift rise of anti-Semitism appeared after 1920. Anti-Semites accused Jews of takeover of Latvian economy and attempts to seize control over the politics of Latvia. Another accusation was the large amounts of Jewish immigrants who entered Latvia together with war refugees from Russia. Such claim has been false since the majority of those who returned lived here before. However, because of citizenship law that granted citizenship to those who had lived here since 1914 about 23% Jews were without it. However, until 1925, 83% Jews were citizens which meant that most of them had applied for citizenship. Jews also were accused for close corporation with the Communist party and the Soviet Union. But the amount of Jews in Communist party was small and became larger only because of the rise of anti-Semitism.
First visible radical nationalist party who became the seed of all nationalist organizations was Latvian National Club (LNC). The club was founded in 1922. It was formed by mostly young age students. The club was sympathetic to Benitto Mussolini Fascist Regime in Italy and sent greeting letters to him personally.   Club despised parliamentary struggle and instead preferred aggressive demonstrations that often resulted in violent incidents. LNC had an influence on anti-Jewish violence at the University of Latvia on December 1922. Radical students who supported LNC caused student riots in University rooms.  Because of radical methods and use of violence club  became more dangerous until it was banned in 1925. The reason was murder of young Jewish social democrat agitator Alexander Massak.

LNC had many follow up parties who existed until 1934. Most of them were marginal and could not reach the LNC fame. But in 1932 new radical movement “Ugunskrusts” (Fire cross ) appeared. This organization will have part in the Holocaust. Because of their anti-governmental agenda and violent acts, it was banned in 1933. However, it was renewed as “Pērkonkrusts” (Thunder cross) at the same year but was again banned by Karlis Ulmanis regime in 1934. The party remained underground trough out the years of Ulmanis regime and was a sharp enemy against it. It had the same ideology as LNC but was even more xenophobic towards minorities. The party was sympathetic towards Nazi Germany and praised its actions against Jews. However before the war they were as much against local Germans as Jews and declared that in the event of takeover of power they will kill Germans along with Jews .  Pērkonkrusts called for expulsion of Jews from Latvia but had no clear plan how to do it.  They declared that if they came to power, they would not spare anyone and destroy the Latvian democracy. Radicals even came to violent attacks against Jews. In February 7 1933 group of radicals attacked the Cionist club in Riga calling “Heil Hitler!”  Similar attacks were made against Jewish shops and individuals. Luckily, radicals killed no one. Pērkonkrusts was also anti-German but their anti-Semitic stance was more visible. During the Ulmanis regime “Pērkonkrusts” became even more grotesque when their members moved around masked in hoods and burned swastika signs on their right elbows.  The leader of the movement was Gustavs Celmiņš. By the German data Pērkoņkrusts had 5, 000 to 6, 000 members.   The LNC and Pērkonkrusts were the main radical forces in the pre–war Latvia.

The leader of Perkonkrusts Gustavs Celmins

However, after one year of Soviet occupation much had been changed, and Latvian nationalists were divided into many groups. Andrievs Ezergails has given definitions for them and set their goals at the start of the war. Ulmanieši (the supporters of Ulmanis) was largest part of the Latvian nationalists at 1941. In ranks of them were many who wanted to collaborate with the Germans. Oskars Dankers, Alfrēds Valdmanis were among those that had the elite position in times of Ulmanis and wanted to regain it with help of Germans. However, it’s worth to note that the majority of these people had hopes for restoration of independence, and they hoped for German help. The Germans, on the other hand, viewed them with suspicion. Another group was Kalpakieši a set of high rank military officers who survived Soviet occupation. They were named after the first commander of the army of Latvia Oskars Kalpaks. Lt. Col. Aleksandrs Plensners and Viktors Deglavs were agents of Abwehr (German intelligence service). Their main goal was the restoration of Latvian national military forces. Such intentions were viewed with hostility from Germans.

Special group was Aizsargi – the civil defence guard. It was formed in 1919, to protect rural areas and fight brigandage. Guards became extra powerful when they allied with Karlis Ulmanis regime. After the occupation, they were dissolved and repressed by Soviets. At the start of the war, many former civil guards entered the partisan movement. Under German occupation some of them entered Schutzmannschaften and also some were part of the Arajs commando.  It appears that Stahlecker first choosed the Aizsargi for collaboration. The behavior of these men is explainable because of Soviet repressions enforced especially against them. Smaller group was Officers of former Latvian army who however did not rush to join German formations. Some of them did join Arajs commando but the count was very small.

Already mentioned Pērkonkrusts had high success at first months of the war. Yet Germans could not forgive their anti-German stance. The main guilt of Pērkonkrusts in Holocaust was the spreading on anti-Jewish propaganda before and after the start of the war. Their connections with murders are unclear but some members are known to taken part in the killings. It is known that Viktor Arājs himself was a student member of Pērkonkrusts but as a policeman in Ulmanis regime, he could not maintain his relationship with the organization.

The preparation of nationalist collaborators for Holocaust

The main forces behind gathering participants for Jewish destruction were: 1, Abwehr– the military intelligence service, Himmlers men and RSHA group, 2, Security Police and SD, 3, civil government and Alfred Rozenberg men.

The agent of Abwerh Curt Greb made contacts with colonel Aleksander Plensner and colonel-lieutenant Viktor Deglav. V. Deglavs was military attaché in Lithuania when Soviet Union occupied Baltic States. He escaped to Germany. A. Plensners was recognized war veteran and intellectual who apart from his military carrier wrote poems. He was attaché in Germany from 1937 who stayed in Berlin after the occupation and in 1941 became an agent of Abwerh. Before the start of the German invasion A. Plensners gathered 200 Latvians living in Germany. In May 1 1941, A. Plensners met with Abwerh in Marienburg in a friendly atmosphere. Abwerh promised that in case of war Latvians would have a chance to form their national forces. A. Plensners men were scattered among many German army units. Abwerh used them for “defense and sabotage tasks”. After Nazi occupation of Latvia A. Plensners and V. Deglavs was quickly removed away from ruling structures. They reached Riga only in  July 5 when Stahlecker’s men already had started to operate.  Unaware of German betrayal Plensners and Deglavs still demanded for the formation of national forces. In the July 18 1941, V. Deglavs was killed in the stairway of A. Plensners apartment.  A large funeral at Latvian main war cemetery were done for Deglavs  and his death was commemorated in main newspaper Tēvija,  but the reason for his death was never revealed.    This event was a clear sign that Germans used Latvian officers as puppets and had no desire to give them more freedom.

Latvian Army war officer Viktors Deglavs killed by Germans because of his demands about restoration of Latvian armed forces

SD worked with the members of Pērkonkrusts. They allowed them to takeover Latvian press. Pērkonkrusts leaders Gustavs Celminš and Evalds Andersons were present in Germany before the war and come back together as Sonderführer under the aegis of Abwehr.   The Pērkonkrusts did notable “intellectual” work on promoting anti-Semitism in their ranks was writers like Raimonds Čaks, Teodors Zeltiņš Mārtiņš Vāgulāns, Artūrs Kroders and Ādolfs Šilde. A. Šilde was best known for his propaganda against Jews and promotion of Holocaust in newspaper Tevija.   Later after the war he completely changed his position and became a notable democratic author.  Known Pērkonkrusts members that took part in Arājs commando was Arnolds Trucis, Valdis Didrichsons and Kārlis Deglavs.

The third agency searching for potential collaborators was the Ministry of the East, Alfred Rozenberg’s purview. The ministry needed a coterie of puppets a group that would play a public role yet allow the Germans to do everything they wished. The puppets had to be men of importance within Latvian community and had accommodated with the Nazis. Chosen persons were Pastor Dr. Visvaldis Sanders from Liepaja, and Arturs Freimanis a retired army officer. These persons, however, was not widely known in the public. But Germans found the support of Oskars Dankers a retired army general with prominence within the society. He, however, was described as a dull man.

There were certainly a sizable number of Latvian collaborators who decided to work with Germans. One side of them took part in Holocaust. However, the others had no anti-Semitic intentions; their motivation was the restoration of Latvia in which they could have some power. While Pērkonkrusts certainly wanted to realize their goal of Jewish expulsion, they also wanted more power in their own hands. Leader of Pērkonkrusts Gustavs Celmiņš made a detailed application for Germans to form Latvian national armed units in German army that would be very common to the future Latvian Waffen SS Legion,   Germans supported none of these intentions. Nazi Germany had an expansionist agenda based on racism and the independence of Latvia was not in these plans. Latvian collaborators were used as puppets; Germans deceived them all. Pērkonkrusts survived Ulmanis and Soviet regime but were smashed during the Nazi occupation. On August 17 1941, German authorities banned Pērkonkrusts. Some members still worked with Germans others turned to resistance. Main leader Gustavs Celmiņš was arrested in 1944 and thrown into concentration camp.

Nationalist collaboration with Nazi Germany is unacceptable; a true nationalist and patriot would never support any occupation regime and fight for only behalf of its country and people. The persons that choused to support Nazi occupants were careerists and criminals not nationalists. However its must be noted that one year of Soviet occupation made an illusion that Germans will support and restore the Latvian independence and therefore many rushed to ally with Germans.
National partisans and their role in the first days of war

Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1941 was shocking time for many Latvians. Even more blowing was the deportation to Siberia at June 14 1941. It widened the will of resistance against Soviet regime. On  June 22 German invasion and their quick success made way for spontaneous resistance against Soviet troops. Armed groups that called themselves “national partisans” attacked retreating Soviet troops and made sabotages.  First partisan regiments formed soon after  June 14 but became active after June 22. Former army officers, civil guards (Aizsargi), and deserters of 24, Rifleman corpus joined the armed struggle.  Armed units had random numbers from few men to many hundreds. They were armed with rifles, sometimes with machine guns, mortars and even tanks. Partisans were present in 20% of Latvian parishes. The amount of national partisans was between 6000 to 8000 partisans.  Ex Latvian army member Lieutenant Colonel Voldemars Veiss and Roberts Osis enlisted 5, 000 men to show up.  Most active they were in Vidzeme, less active in Latgalia. Partisans attacked weapon storages, retreating army men and NKVD agents. Other than that they also were accused of opening fire to evacuating Jews, who fled Nazi army. However, there are no documentary proof on that.   Partisans did many atrocities against communist supporters; there were rumors that partisans hanged a boy only because he had a pioneer uniform.  In Riga during two days of war partisan activity was very high, Red Army was shot from rooftops. Partisans did everything to prevent the escape of fugitives; many Jews could not make out safe because of them.  In combat actions about 120 national partisans lost their lives . Latvian public was exited to meet Germans as their new liberators. Streets of Riga were filled with armed men awaiting their arrival.  Some thought now it’s time to set scores with the Jews  but most were just exited of “liberation of Riga”. A sudden rise of national partisans can be described as sense of revenge against soviet occupation and their crimes especially the deportation of June 14 few days before the war. Most of simple Latvians who joined national partisans were motivated to fight soviets not specially Jews.

Latvian national partisans on the streets of Riga at 1 July

When Germans finally captured Riga, a large crowd went to greet German army. A large demonstration with national flags was set to offer flowers and bread to German soldiers. Latvian national anthem “God bless Latvia!” was sung along the way. However, a day after all flags were removed and anthem was prohibited to sing.  Germans wanted to exclude the usage of words “Latvia” and Baltic states”.

Germans had a dilemma on what to do with these people. Hitler on July 16 1941, banned non–Germans to bear weapons.   However, a year earlier Himmler, on May 28 1940, noted that non–Germans could become town majors and policeman.  When Germans met local partisans, they renamed them to self-defense forces. They appreciated their help fighting Red army but feared from their will to set vertical networks reaching towards every pagasts (parish) of Latvia.

On  June 30 German military command set out main points on what to with the national partisans.  The formation of these forces was encouraged, but at the same time they were limited to cleansing land from Bolshevik terror and Russian stragglers. But they were banned from the political initiative and only set as auxiliary forces. National army was disallowed. Regiments had to be commanded by local rulers under jurisdiction on German military command. In so national partisan units were organized in Selbstschutz (self-defense) regiments.  Germans organized 700 self-defense commandants’ offices across Latvia. These were armed structures that were responsible for the law and order. Wermacht and SD controlled them. All orders came from them although in some cases self-defenders could make their own moves.

Instructions from Heydrich made it clear that existence of these units should be temporary and their role only should be limited on pogroms against the Jews. At  July 8 Stahlecker dissolved all national partisan units. Those who he trusted were included in auxiliary police under his control.  It’s important that the term for new regiments was not Latvian, military, nor police but auxiliary police. Later they were renamed to Schutzmannschaften on October 1941.

From National partisan units Stahlecker also organized several Security police and SD auxiliary units and teams sometimes refereed to as Sonderkommandos. These commandos on whom the largest was Arājs commando were under Stahleckers own guidance, and when he left their supervision was entrusted to the leadership of the Eiznatzkommando 2. These units were directly involved in killings of Latvian Jews.

Only after the establishment of Self-defense forces Germans started mass murders all around Latvia.  This means that Germans only used national partisans for this purpose. Some men from national partisans were not inclined to kill the Jews, but now Germans gave them such task. It could be seen, as tragedy for those men who wanted to fight for Latvian freedom became the perpetrators of Nazi crimes. Nazi propaganda however managed to convince many Latvians that the Jews were the blame for the Soviet occupation and atrocities.   German plans for spontaneous pogroms failed, einzatsgruppe A reported that only few thousand Jews were killed by the locals.

The Arājs commando

It is not exactly known how many Latvian Jews fell in the hands of the Arajs commando. The number may be at least 26 000 people. Commando was formed from radicals, members of student fraternities and simple people who applied to join.  The official name of the commando was Latvian SD police but because of notable presence of Arājs it was mostly called Arājs commando.

Viktors Arajs the head of SD commando that took thousands of Jewish lifes

The main face of the commando was Viktors Arājs. He was born on January 13 1910 in Baldone, a small town near Riga. He was a son of the Latvian blacksmith Teodors and German–Latvian Berta. German was often spoken in his parental household. However, he felt himself as a Latvian. First world war separated his family; his father joined the Imperial army. He returned to Latvia, by a way of China, bringing along a Chinese woman. Arājs was forced to live in poor conditions and work hard during the wartime.  He received education in Jelgava gymnasium and in 1930, was enlisted into the army. In 1932 he applied to join a law faculty of Latvian University.   He joined nationalist organization Viestura savienība (Viestur’s Society) at 1930. He also looked for more possibilities and entered the student fraternity Lettonia, the most oldest and respectable of all.   In 1935 he attended police school and was sent to practice to Zaube parish. In 1937 he married Zelma Zeibots a Zaube local. Because of these departures he could not finish university. He dropped out but returned in November 1940 under Soviet occupation. His study results were average from very good to bad. There are three CV’s written by Arājs in 1935 1940 1941. In first he shows how he makes his carrier and hides his material difficulties. In January 7 1941, CV he conforms his life completely to Soviet standards. This CV is most detailed and shows Arājs as a good Soviet citizen.  This means that Arājs could collaborate with any foreign regime on the behalf of his personal carrier. He received a lawyer’s diploma in March 1941 and stated that he starts to believe “that Bolshevism was the best of systems. Indubitably, I was then a communist.”   This remark, however is doubtful because is hard to tell when he was telling the truth or lie. He also had remarks about anti-Communist feelings in his trial. He told that he joined partisan movement at the start of the war.

Arājs declared that when Germans entered Riga, he had gathered about 400 to 500 men under his command and had occupied the police headquarters.  Such claim is credited false. However it could be that such group of ex–soldiers and policemen may have “spontaneously” gathered. A radio call on 1, July asked all policemen to return to their police stations. He met Stahlecker at 1, July and 2, July, he was appointed to head a commando.
Arājs was a typical opportunist. He came from poor family and had limited chances to start a successful carrier in independent Latvia. So he looked for opportunities in ranks of foreign invaders. He could well work together with Soviets as he did in 1941, when he received degree. To hide his shameful communist past, he joined partisans and then Germans. Sadly, he was most successful with Nazis.
The exact conditions of establishment of the commando are still unknown. The persons involved are SD agent Roberts Štiglics a Latvian political police functionary under Ulmanis, Hans Dressler, a Baltic German, who was a member of the EG and Stahlecker’s cohort. Dressler knew Arājs from Jelgava gymnasium and the Latvian army.

Arājs gathered members for his commando. His closest associate was lieutenant Fēliks Dībietis who helped Arājs to make the structure for his commando. Arājs used his fraternity membership to attract more members. One of them was Herberts Cukurs a famous pilot and adventurer. Before the war Jews once knew Cukurs as very friendly to them when he took journey to Palestine and presented his adventures to Jewish public, at main Jewish club.  Also members from Pērkonkrusts, and Aizsargi (civil guards) were asked join. However, not only members from these social groups entered the commando. Most of the commando members were simple workers and farmers.  The motivation for joining was different for many. Some had political motivation while others wanted to find a good job. This means that commando was not generally made of radicals and anti–Semites; some who joined probably may not expect that they had to kill unarmed civilians.

First task of the commando was the organization of “spontaneous” pogrom. On July 4, they burned all the synagogues in Riga including main Horal Synagogue at Maskavas street. Many people burned alive in synagogue the number of the perished is unknown.
Arājs commando was not the only Latvian formation that took direct part in the Holocaust. In Jelgava Jews were killed by Vāgulāns commando. Latvians recruited in Hilfspolizei lead by lieutenan colonel Veiss and members of Selbstschutz also were involved in the killings. But the Arājs commando was the most notorious and most lasting killing squad of all. Commando was deformed in 1944, when it was no longer useful.
Latvians who wanted to collaborate with Germans in order to fulfill their carrier became a part of Nazi crimes. Some of them may not want to kill Jews, not all national partisans attacked Jews at first days of war, and neither, they joined Nazi formations after it. But those who joined and took active part in Holocaust are criminals despite their motives and intentions.

The leader of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler made a decision to attack his former ally – Soviet Union. Modern research shows that Hitler made the decision to kill Jews right before the operation Barbarosa. The two main planers of this action was chief of the SS Heinrich Himmler and SD chief Reinhard Heydrich. Heydrich who devised a plan of “spontaneous” pogroms to make  appear that the locals did the killings. To do this Germans found enough Latvian collaborators, radicals and opportunists to do this. Some of them were radical anti-Semites like Perkonkrusts. Others like Viktors Arājs were opportunists who could fare well in NKVD as well they did in SS. Most of these people were lees of Latvian nation not the elite.  It’s not objective to accuse all Latvian nation in Holocaust because of these killers. Simon Wissenthal has said “Already a year after the war I washed away a thought about collective fault, because I know history who shows that we Jews in our thousand year time always been victims of collective fault”

But the fault of these Latvian collaborators must not be forgotten. Although they called themselves nationalists, it’s not the nature of true nationalist to support foreign invaders. Especially if they have plans for large–scale crimes. It is a question of morale of every person who is involved in such actions. Holocaust was the collective tragedy for Latvians and Jews because both became victims of German imperialism. It was only the German defeat in Eastern front that saved Latvians from German plans of Germanization.

It is also worth to remember that whatever the crimes committed by non–Germans it was the Germans, who established a pattern of systematic persecution.  Independent Latvian state was not capable and had no desire for the killing of Jews. It was only the Nazi Germany, who opened doors for radicals and opportunists to realize their darkest intentions.

Selected Sources:

Ezergailis, Andrievs. (1996) The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941–1944 : the missing center. Riga: History Institute of Latvia; Washington, DC: US Holocaust Memorial Museum
Bleiere, Daina, Ilgvars Butulis, Inesis Feldmanis, Aivars Stranga, Antonijs Zunda. (2008) Latvija Otrajā pasaules karā (1939–1945).Rīga: Jumava

Felder, Björn M. (2006) Lettland im Zweiten Weltkrieg : zwischen sowjetischen und deutschen Besatzern 1940–1946. Paderborn; München; Wien
Biezais, Haralds. (1992). Latvija kāškrusta varā : sveši kungi – pašu ļaudis.   Īstlansinga : Gauja.
Browning, Christopher R. (2005) The origins of the final solution, The evolution of Nazi Jewish policy 1939. –1942. London.
Documents of the Holocaust. Jerusalem Yad Vashem, 1999.
Латвия под игом нацизма: сборник архивных документов. М.: Европа, 2006.

Mēs apsūdzam: Rakstu krāj.: Dokumenti un materiāli par hitlerisko okupantu un latv. buržuāzisko nacionālistu ļaundarībām LPSR : 1941–1945. Iev. aut. un red. kol.: A. Kadiķis (atb. red.) u. c.; sast.: R. Skrābāns, L. Stonāne, M. Vestermanis] ; LPSR Ministru Padomes Arhīvu pārv. LPSR Centr. valsts vēst. arhīvs. LKP CK Partijas vēst. inst. PSKP CK Marksisma–ļeņinisma inst. filiāle. Rīga: Liesma, 1965.

Kaprāns, Mārtiņš, Zelče, Vita. Vēsturiskie cilvēki un viņu biogrāfijas. Viktora Arāja Curriculum vitae Latvijas Valsts vēstures arhīva materiālos. In: Latvijas Arhīvi, 2009. Nr. 3.

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Holocaust in Latvia

Memorial Site at the mass killing site at the Biķernieki forest in Riga

Memorial Site at the mass killing site at the Biķernieki forest in Riga

Throughout the history many nations had become victims of mass killings. The slaughters made by the Assyrians, Mongols and the destruction of native Americans have its bloody marks in history. Then there was genocidal actions by the Christian church against non-believers and enemies of the church. The massive scale of the Communist genocide has not yet been fully witnessed. But the most “famous” genocide was a Nazi Germany action against the Jewish nation. Its large scale the industrial character of the killings was the most extreme genocide in the 20th century. In every part of Nazi captured lands Jews were predestined for destruction. Their age, gender or social status did not matter every Jewish person had to be killed. It was different from other genocides that often had a random pattern of killings.

National socialist  antisemitism was based on many false beliefs. The concept of superior Aryan race was German ultra nationalism. Adolf Hitler personally blamed Jews for German defeat in 1918 the so-called “stab in back legend” that was created by the German military to put the blame on others for the their defeat. Also Nazi antisemitism was based on economic reasons, the belief that Jews share an unequal portion of state market.

In Latvia antisemitism was mostly marginal before 1920. Latvians and Jews lived together and shared the same national status while Baltic Germans and Russians had ruling rights. After 1920 Latvians became the main political nation in the country. Despite that Jews had influence in finance, culture and politics throughout the years of Latvian independence. That was met with resentment from Latvian nationalists. Latvian – Jewish relations were not violent but very tense in the questions of economy, politics and traditions. By reading the newspapers of provincial towns you can see that in places where Jews and Latvians lived together; they often had quarrels and disagreements.

However the radical anti-Semitism was rather low. It was mostly present in radical newspapers. But they were radical nationalist groups like the Latvian National Club and the Thundercross that sparked violent actions against the Jews. Both of these organizations were banned. They were popular among the youth but never gained enough popularity to tackle the  ruling regime. Before 1940, Latvia was ruled by authoritarian president Karlis Ulmanis. While he tried to make certain nationalist policy and repressed some Jewish organizations, he was generally friendly to Jews. He helped thousands of German and Austrian Jews to escape from the Nazi regime and suppressed antisemitism in state media. In so the independent Latvian state was never capable to make direct actions against the Jews, it was the Nazi Germany who set the necessary climate for such actions.

The Jewish killings started on  June 22 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded in the Soviet Union. The task was entrusted to four special security  service groups the Einsatzgruppe EG. In Latvia the Einsatzgruppe A with 990 members took action. The large number was intended for the Jewish community of Leningrad. The commander of the Einsatzgruppe was Walter Stalhlecker. Also all local German power structures such as police and army took part in the actions.

First killings begun in June 22 near Grobina Courland. 6 Jews were killed by Germans. Soviet army was retreating rapidly so German military set command posts and issued anti-Jewish orders. Jews were prohibited to appear on the streets, go to the shops and all were registered and marked. After that the murders begun in Durbe, Priekule, Asite and Riga, nearly every place captured by the Germans.

However the systematic killings only begun a few weeks later. The Germans needed to take complete order of Latvian territory. First days of the war were rather chaotic, the battles with Red army and increased activity of Latvian paramilitary formations. Jews were first killed in towns and villages and the first wave of murders continued till August. Germans used local Latvian collaborators to assist the crime.  Local administrations registered the Jewish citizens, the local Latvian self-defense units and Latvian SD units took direct action the crimes.

In June- August approximately 30 000 people were killed. However SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler was not pleased with “rather slow” temps of the killings and sent SS obergruppenfuhrer Friedrich Jeckeln to boost them up.  The previous leader Walter Stalhecker left Latvia to Leningrad front where he was killed by Soviet partisans in 1942. The obergruppenfuhrer H. A. Prinzmann was removed from office because he wanted to spare a quantity of Jews for slave work. Jeckeln was known for his actions in Babi Jar in Ukraine where his men killed 33 00 Jews from Kiev.

Memorial Site at the Rumbula forest

Memorial Site at the Rumbula forest

Jeckeln gathered all Jews from Riga Ghetto and with help of German Security Police and four Latvian units killed 24 000 Jews of Riga in Rumbula forest in  November 30. Only 6000 Latvian Jews were kept alive after it for slave work. They were stationed in the remains of old Ghetto and various concentration camps. In 1944 what was left by then were sent to camps in Germany. Along the way Jews from Western Europe were sent to Latvia and murdered there.

Germans also killed mentally ill people and Roma people in Latvia. People were taken from mental hospitals and killed. Roma killing were not systematic, because Nazis could really sort out whether Gypsies were members of lower race or not. Because they originated from India, they could be Aryans either way. They were killed until 1943 when Himmler changed his mind and issued that Romani have positive racial element. The killings of Gypsies in Latvia were not consequent, they were killed in Liepaja, Kuldiga, Tukums, Ludza and other places.

One of the bitter questions of the Holocaust is local Latvian involvement in the crime. The Jewish saviors were minority because of tough sentences for such actions. A majority of Latvians were neutral and did not take any action in the crime. Those who were involved were either shooters or guards who escorted Jews to killing spot. Others took part in registration of the Jews. Many people robbed the houses of their Jewish neighbors.

The self- defense   (Selbsschutz) units were gathered from Latvian national partisans who took arms in the first days of the war. They were man lusting for revenge against the Soviets and had a desire of restoration of Latvian independence. The scale of Soviet crimes in 1940 – 1941, was so high that the majority of Latvians greeted the Germans as liberators. The Germans had no intention for Latvian independence, Latvia was to become part of the Nazi empire. Massive Nazi propaganda blamed Jews for the Soviet occupation and incited hatred. So Latvian units were put under German control and used for their crimes. In August 1941 almost all of these units were disbanded because they were no longer useful. Also the Latvian Auxiliary Police took part.

The main Latvian unit was the  Latvian SD commando lead by Viktors Arājs. They were the main Latvian killers who traveled all Latvia to kill Jews in various places. The typical scenario of Latvian involvement was such: local self-defense units “gathered” all Jews to one place. Then the Latvian SD unit arrived and killed the Jews. Even if all the orders were carried out by the Germans, it was rare that Latvians resisted to take part in the killings. A known exception was the head of the local self defense guard at the town of Aknīste Jānis Valdmanis. He refused to take part in the killings and directly asked: “Is this  the order by the state of Germany?” In result he and his unit was replaced by other Latvian unit who carried out the killings instead of them.

Latvian involvement was necessary for Nazis carry out their crime. Nazi aim was to make create image that killings was done solely by Latvians without much German assistance based on their hatred towards Jews. It may be several thousand Latvians who were involved in those actions. However it’s not right to give the collective fault to Latvians and Latvia for the Holocaust. The intention came from Germany and those who were involved in this were pure criminals a shame of the Latvian nation. Holocaust took part in Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and and whole Eastern and Western Europe where locals were involved in actions against the Jews. Collective blame should not be placed on any of these nations as well no collective blame should be placed on Jews.

From 1941 to 1945 a 90 000 Jews were killed. Among them Latvian Jews, Lithuanian Jews and Jews from Western Europe. It was the largest criminal act ever done in Latvian history. Today is the remembrance day of the Jewish holocaust in Latvia. July 4 was the day when the Germans with Latvian SD Arājs commando burned down the  Jewish synagogues in Riga.  As long as there is a Jewish community in Latvia this crime will not be forgotten.

The site of the Riga Grand Choral Synagogue burned down by Nazis on July 4 1941

The site of the Riga Grand Choral Synagogue burned down by Nazis on July 4 1941

Selected Sources:

Ezergailis, Andrievs. (1996) The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944 : the missing center. Riga : History Institute of Latvia ;Washington, DC : US Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Ezergailis, Andrievs. (2005)Nazi/Soviet disinformation about the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Latvia : Daugavas Vanagi–who are they? Rīga : Latvijas 50 gadu okupācijas muzeja fonds.

Barkahan, Menachem (Ed.) (2008) Extermination of the Jews in Latvia, 1941-1945. Riga : Society “Shamir”.

Nollendorfs, Valters. (2007) The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Soviet and Nazi occupations 1940-1991 : selected research of the Commission of the Historians of Latvia. Rīga : Institute of the History of Latvia Publishers.

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