Monthly Archives: May 2014

The Lost Latvian Land – Abrene

The District of Jaunlatgale. The highlighted areas were annexed by Russia

The District of Jaunlatgale. The highlighted areas were annexed by Russia

On March 1 2014  Russia invaded the sovereign Ukrainian territory – Crimea. A “referendum” was held and after the “plea from the Crimean people” the Crimean province was annexed by Russia. A 19th century style act that shocked the modern world. Russia stated that Crimea was originally a Russian territory that was vainly transferred to Ukrainian SSR on 1954 by Nikita Khrushchev. However, Russia has forgotten similar events on 1944-1945 when Russia illegitimately annexed part of Latvian and Estonian border territories.  Same technique was used- both countries were occupied, there were “requests from locals” a “plebiscite”  and after that the lands were added to Russian Federal Soviet Socialist Republic. What seemed as simple administrative action for Stalinist government as the soviet republics were sovereign only on paper, turned out as tragedy as these lands stayed within the Russian Federation. With no real hope to return them back and if returned it would cost millions to invest in these lands ravaged by the soviet power.

The lost land Latvian land today is known as Abrene district although before World War 2 it was called Jaunnlatgale (New Latgale) district that also included large areas of modern-day Balvi district. During 9-12th centuries these territories were inhabited by Latgalian tribes who lived as far of west from the river Velikaya, Mudava in Latvian. On 13th century during the Baltic crusades  Duke of Pskov Mstislav Rostislavich and local Latgalian rulers fought wars for this border area. On 1224 the Abrene castle district was taken over by Bishop Albert of Riga and later added to Riga Archbishopric, part of the Livonian Confederation.  On 1431 Pskov Duchy started to wage wars to gain this land. A well fortified fortress of Vyshgorodok was built within occupied parishes of Kacēni and Augšpils. On 1461-1464 while Livonia was caught up in internal rivalry the whole Abrene region was taken over by Pskov and forced locals to give up their catholic faith. On 1481 the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III also claimed this land. On 1581 during the Livonian war the fortress of Vyshgorodok was captured by Polish-Lithuanian troops. After  the end of the Livonian war the easter part of Abrene region was gained back by Russia.

Until 1772 the much of the Abrene district was part of Poland-Lithuania. After the first partition of Poland the territory was added to the province of Pskov. Later on 1802 it was added to the province of Vitebsk that included Latgale and was part of Ludza district a distinctive Latvian town. Philologists August Johann Gottfried Bielenstein and Kārlis Mīlenbahs, conducting linguistic field research in the area in the late 19th and early 20th century, found that many people, called “Russian Latvians” by the local Russians, still spoke the High Latvian dialect. So these territories although  borderlands had not lost its connection with Latvians and Latgale region that on On 1917 December 14 the districts of Dinaburg (Daugavpils), Ludsen (Ludza), Rositten (Rēzekne) was added to province of Vidzeme.

When the Republic of Latvia was proclaimed its claimed territories were the provinces of Courland and Semigallia  and province of Vidzeme including Latgale. During the War for Freedom on December 1918 Latvia was invaded by the Bolsheviks and the local Latvian soviet government was installed. However, on spring- summer 1919 Bolsheviks were chased away from Riga and controlled only Latgale. After Latvian armed forces defeated the Army of Bermont on November 1919, it was essential to liberate Latgale as Estonia had already signed  peace treaty with the Soviet Russia. On December 1919 both Latvian and Polish armies in joint offensive attacked the Bolsheviks. Most part of Latgale was liberated and the Latvian army headed towards far eastern parts of Latgale. On January 14 1920 the city of Pytalovo was captured by Latgalian Partisan corps. Town first appeared in 18th century and gain its importance after it became the railway station to a railway branch on route to Daugavpils. All parts of Latgale were liberated. On February  1 1920 Latvia and Soviet Russia signed ceasefire.

Some fighting at  Vyshgorodok or Augšpils still went on after the ceasefire. The village was taken by Latvian army. Krasnoye, Glushkova and Pokrovskoye were also taken but were given back to Russia. The whole spring were spent on talks on peace agreement. Soviets were reluctant to give up Pytalova the important railroad route both for trade and army means. However, Latvians were stubborn to return it and in memorandum to the Paris Peace conference on June 10 where it was stated that Latvian inhabited borders stretches to rail station of Pytalova. Soviets were caught up in war with Poland and decided to give up their claims on it. However, Soviets managed to regain another Latvian captured rural center Drysa (Verkhnyadzvinsk) a Belarussian town with Latvian minority of 400 people. On August 11 1920 the Peace Agreement with Soviet Russia was finally signed. The northern part of Ludza district and western part of Ostrova together with Pytalova was added to Latvia. Soviet Russia recognized Latvian sovereignty and promised to not threaten its   independence for “eternal times”. Ott0 von Bismark said that any agreement with Russia its not worth the paper it is written. Bismark talked about treacherous Russian Imperial diplomacy as it turned out nothing has much changed since then.

School in Abrene

School in Abrene

On June 1924 12 northern parishes of Ludza district were separated and included into new Jaunlatgale district. Pytalovo was renamed as Jaunlatgale (New Latgale). On 1933 Jaunnlatgale received citizenship rights. The city had district administration, state land inspection, school inspection, doctor and border area chairman office. Latvian and Russian schools. According to the national census of 1935 the six later lost Latvian parishes, had small percent of Latvians. Augšpils had 4,31%, Gauri 4,36%, Kacēni 16,91%, Linava 4,63%, Purvmala 32% and the city of Jaunlatgle 38%. Majority were Russians or Great Russians as they were called then, Belarusians,  and Jews. Some Latvians settled there to gain new farming lands, some were families of the border guards. Despite the high Russian majority no tense ethnic conflict never occurred, Russians had their own school and gymnasium.  On 1938 the city of Jaunlatgale was renamed to Abrene.

The coat of arms of Abrene

The coat of arms of Abrene

On June 15 1940 Soviet NKVD special forces attacked the Latvian border station Maslenki within Abrene region. 3 border guards and  2 civilians were killed and may taken hostage. The raid was used as pretext for the Soviet Union to force the Latvian government to allow the entry of the soviet troops. On June 17 1940 Latvia was occupied and later annexed. Abrene remained within the Latvian SSR. On Summer 1941 Nazi German army took over the town. Local Jews were murdered.  Abene was included in special German Ostland province within Latvia part of it. On June 1944 the city and surrounding areas were taken by the Soviet Army.

With much part of Latvia including Riga still in German hands, the Latvian soviet government was moved from Moscow to Daugavpils. And after “proposal” from the Soviet government, on August 22 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of LSSR “asked” the   Soviet government to separate known areas with Russian majority. The areas were the parishes of Purvmala, Linava, Kacēni, Upmale, Gauri un Augšpils. On October 5-6 1944 the LSSR SC Presidium approved “the will of the people” within these areas. There however, where no sources that proves there was at least an opinion poll held within these war-torn areas about joining Russian Federal Soviet Socialist Republic.  Instead right after Latvian SSR government moved to  Riga, two delegations of  the local Russian representatives asked the Latvian government to keep local population within the Latvian borders. This was not approved. Most of the Abrene administration was replaced with Russian and Belarusian partisans and functionaries. Soon the old Russian and Latvian inhabitants either moved away to Latvian part or were deported. Population was replaced with immigrants from Russia and other areas. As for 2002 census

 This act is violation of even Soviet law (the 1936 constitution then in force required that changes in internal borders be confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, not the Presidium). Though the official documents transfer 1075.31 square kilometers, 1293.6 square kilometers were actually transferred. According to census of 2002 690 people calling themselves Latvians resides in Pskov district.

According to the Latvian Constitution the borders of Latvia are according to Peace Treaty of 1920. On the Declaration of  the Restoration of independence on May 4 1990 that restored the power of the Latvian constitution intended to follow the terms of the peace treaty. However, in January 1991 in bilateral relations agreement with Russian Federation (with USSR still in existence), Russian side rejected the reference to 1920 peace treaty. As Russia do not recognize that Latvia was illegally occupied and annexed on 1940 and sees no continuation between 1918-1940 Latvia and present day Latvia, the question became frozen.  On 2005 when Latvia negotiated with Russia on the border agreement, the president of Russia Vladimir Putin called the Latvian claims on Abrene as the ” against the spirit of Europe.”  And also remarked that instead of Abrene Latvia will receive the ears of a dead donkey. However on July 2008 Russia transfered 174 km² area of land to China.

On April 29, 2005, Latvia announced that it would sign an interpretative declaration in conjunction with the proposed border agreement with Russia, noting that the border agreement would in no way affect “the legal rights of the Latvian state and its citizens” under the 1920 treaty. As a consequence, Russia scrapped the border agreement, as it saw this as attempt to prolong debate on Abrene. Despite the heated protests from far right movements on 2007 the border agreement was signed making no open references to the 1920 treaty. It was moral and legal failure for Latvia.

Estonia is in similar situation as Latvia. On the same time as Abrene, Soviet Union took 2.500 km² large area of Veru and Pesteri districts from Estonia. The areas it gave it up the same way as to Latvia with a border agreement. Estonia lost Ivanogord the suburb of city of Narva and the city of Petseri (Pechori). Russia canceled the border treaty with Estonia on 2005 because of references to the soviet occupation. On February 2014 Estonia signed the border agreement similarly to Latvia giving up its claims on occupation and lost lands.

Can we ever gain these lands back and is its worth it? First such thing seems to impossible with the present land grabbing Russian government who shows no respect to international laws or treaties proving the Otto von Bismark statement that its pointless to  believe that Russia will fulfill its signed treaties. If situation in Russia changes, with modern government and if the locals within these districts wishes to join Latvia with a referendum then its possible. But the recourses and the burden will be great, as these areas needs to be adjusted to Latvian and EU laws and structures. And the large Russian majority in these regions will increase the overall Russian speaking minority. They cannot get Latvian citizenship automatically according to laws and their social situation may force them to move to Riga to look for better job. With this all the rejoining Abrene with Latvia seems more a fantasy. But its a another of thousand reminders that Russia cannot be trusted in international affairs. Its interprets the treaties and laws according to their own, they feel no hesitation to break the treaties they signed, but accuses others of “breaking” them. And if Russia is caught right-handed of breaking laws and treaties it will always say – you did it first!   From a country unable to abide even to its own Constitution  we cannot expect nothing more. Abrene or Jaunlagale or Pytalova is a clear example of the century long injustice within Russian external politics.



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The Story of the Man, the Flag and the Radio tower

The Radio Tower where Bruno Javoišs raised the flag of Latvia

The Radio Tower where Bruno Javoišs raised the flag of Latvia

During the Soviet occupation the usage of the Latvian national flag was strictly forbidden. Public display of it would cause arrest and imprisonment. So people kept their flags hidden in their homes away from the watchful eyes of the KGB. Yet one man dared to raise the flag above the Riga radio tower to display his hope of change and protest to the communist order. However, he was quickly spotted by the Soviet patrols and arrested and his act was kept unknown to many. His name was Bruno Javoišs and last year he published his memoirs. Since this site is devoted both to radio history and the history of Latvian anti-soviet resistance this little known remarkable story will be displayed here.

Bruno Javoišs was a student at 10th grade High School at Red Army Street. Wandering around the Riga Central market and shops Javoišs begun to notice the arrogance of the Russian shopkeepers and customers demanding to speak Russian and disdaining the Latvian language. As he grew older in 11th grade he started to read old books before World War 2. He had to be careful because he lived in communal apartment with immigrant family from Bashkiria who always watched his family moves with suspicion. The books were about so-called “Times of Latvia” or as official Soviet education called – “the bourgeoisie Latvia” where everything was bad, but now in Soviet Latvia everything is fine and it will get better. However, his grandma’s books showed everything the other way around – in difficult history filled with wars and suffering the independence was won with country of its own anthem and century old flag.

In search for more old books he came across the book called the “The Horrible Year”. Today this book is rightfully viewed as a piece of Nazi propaganda that was made to justify the genocide against the Jews of Latvia. However, the book was right that on 1940 Soviet Union had occupied Latvia an inconvenient truth that Soviet propaganda tried to hide. Book by book, word by word he begun to understand that everything is not like it is. The Soviet power was rouge not a Latvian one. He made a group of common minded peers and even came across the idea of spreading leaflets. But, nothing happened as his peers were only active of talking not doing.

He decided to act alone – not sure what he will do, but it has to remain secret. What two knows – rest of the world knows. On his way from one school to other he always came past the Riga radio tower. It was built on 1925 near the old radio building on Aspazijas Boulevard. During the Soviet celebrations on May 1, November 7 at the top of the tower the flag of Latvian Soviet republic was always raised. At one time it came across to his mind that the rouge flag should be replaced with flag of Latvia to mark the change. Off course that was naïve thought that it could shake up the strong omnipresent Soviet regime. The partisans fighting with guns in forests were long beaten there was no hope for Western invasion- yet everything must be started from one small step. Without telling his parents he joined the DOSAAF (Volunteer Society for Cooperation with the Army, Aviation, and Fleet) courses for military drivers. To learn the military skills for his future act no matter those courses were in Russian – the language skills also can contribute to the fight.

After finishing High School he was conscripted in the Soviet Army. He came to army with joy and applied for the commander courses. After finishing all courses and gaining all necessary certificates he was told to join the communist party and sign an agreement to loyally serve the regime and fulfill every order. He declined. He was sent away with words: “From mud you came, the mud you must stay”. On 1963 with resentment that he was outside the party and gave up the officer carrier he was accepted into Riga Aviation Engineer Institute. But, Javoišs knew every line of the soviet ideology and the party plans to convince the examiners. He begun the studies with excitement, but soon the harassing Russification had enough of him. Not even in school cafeteria he could freely speak Latvian without suspicious looks. The lectures about history of the communist party and the philosophy of Marxism were a hardship to him. In war school and army he heard all this but now it was enough.

He began to ask questions – from whom Cossack Yermak liberated the people of Siberia, why the Caucasian nations lived better under the Tsar rather than Turks. And why nothing was done to fulfill the great Lenin instructions in national policy and why the plague of the “Great Russian” chauvinism still reigns. The teachers asked to prove the last statement. Javoišs said I don’t have to look deep for that: into that in army I was asked to sing along “”Russia, Russia – my fatherland” in Russian and was told to become an aviator I have to know Russian and it’s pointless to speak to local militiaman (policeman) in Latvia. Teacher replied that these questions are difficult and should be discussed outside the classrooms. And he was called to talk with party representative and asked what you don’t like in this institute. “Oh no! I like everything here!” He stayed quiet until the day of Soviet constitution came across. In discussion about the rights of seceding from the Soviet Union as granted by the “most democratic constitution in the world” Javoišs expressed concerns that Latvian nation against her own will is Russianized in “the prime essence of this word”. Teacher became angry and shouted: “What is holding you! Have you not read the constitution of the USSR? Secede if you nations want so!” Javoišs bitted his lips. Sure it was desire of him and many, but does to whole Latvian nation wants so? Could he speak on the behalf of the Latvian nation?

And then before his eyes the mighty radio tower appeared. He will raise the flag of Latvia on it. Then he will see if the nation will support or condemn him. There were some instances in country side where the flag was raised on church tower or on the tall tree. But, that was in the country side – it has to happen in the main city center to all to see and not forgot. In front of the local soviet government and the occupying force. If he falls down let him to be buried on the Latvian soil. If he succeeds and will be arrested he will describe to all publicly why he had done this. In the court he will use all of his knowledge of the Soviet laws and constitution. Let there be plebiscite! Let the nation decide to break away from the union!

He learned how to climb and loose fear from heights. After all the flag of USSR was raised by skillful alpinist. And he had to tailor the flag himself and use the skills his grandma taught him. The flag was ready and was kept in the drawer till the night of December 5. It was the day of the Soviet Constitution.

When the night came he wrote the farewell letter to his close ones, explaining his motives and asked to be buried in the Brothers War cemetery. The young naivety was still strong. In Russian army clothing and military backpack he came to his target posing as army driver coming to his morning shift. He approached the tower trough the empty winter streets of Riga. Near the tower he was ready to climb but noticed someone in the dark looking at him. He was looking at him from the canal bridge. Javoišs noticed a broom and started to pose as a simple street sweeper and sweep the streets until it begun to rain. The stranger went away. The rain would make the tower icy impossible to climb. He decided to risk, and he also forgot to take his grenade with him

He approached the construction and started to climb. He made it to the first platform where shallow iron stairs lead him upwards. He climbed up step by step until he could hear the sound of the waving LSSR flag. But then the surprise came- the construction ended. Tall spires lead upwards to LSSR flag. And then he found the crossbar above it the flag must be changed. He pulled up to crossbar sat on it and changed the LSSR flag to the majestic flag of Latvia.

Bruno Javoišs arrest picture

Bruno Javoišs arrest picture

Resisting his temptation to enjoy the great view of Riga from the top of the radio tower he climbed downwards. The flag should greet everyone in Riga in the morning. As he approached downwards where the stairs ended he was ready to climb only to saw an armed group of militia officers running towards the tower. The militia building was just near the tower. Now it was clear – he will not see the flag from the ground. The militiamen shouted in Russian: “Jump here!” He jumped down and was hit and beaten accompanied by Russian swear words. “Not a single swear word in Latvian!” he remembered. He was dragged to the main building and the upstairs.

Brutal officers then were replaced by two men of who one in clear Latvian said: “Oh my, what they have done to you?” “Mitrofanov quickly bring some water let him clean himself up!” After cleaning up his face in towel the two Latvian officers said can we have a talk now? The two officers were convinced that he was recruited to climb up to tower and did not believe he acted on his own. “No worries, you will tell everything eventually!”. For eight months he spent in KGB basement and was sentenced for seven years for “anti-soviet agitation and propaganda” the highest crime against the state.

Bruno Javoišs today

Bruno Javoišs today

What happened to the flag? Some say that alpinist called to remove the flag was already drunk before celebrations and was unable to climb up until eleven in the morning.

Bruno Javoišs spent his prison days in Mordovia where he met other political prisoners like Gunārs Astra, Juris Ziemelis and others. He worked as driver in Riga on his return was unable to join the Academy of Arts. But, he was helped to join the University of Tartu. He finished it gaining degree in history of arts, married an Estonian and raised family of three children. He stayed in Estonia, worked in art enterprise, later as history teacher in times of independence and now as postman. He is awarded with the Sign of Distinction of the Order of Three Stars. Because of his nationalistic views and political affiliations he was considered dangerous to enter Latvia at March 16th Legion day. Despite this painful accident he came to Latvia last year at the War Museum to commemorate the 50 years since he raised the flag on the radio tower. The radio tower itself was removed on 1994 for it was no longer in working order. But, the flag of Latvia once again is used freely and is a symbol of our national and democratic freedom – a freedom that still needs to be fought for.

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Shortwave radio monitoring by the KGB in Latvia

Soviet made Shortwave radios were enjoyment for citizens but were headache for KGB

Soviet made Shortwave radios were enjoyment for citizens but were headache for KGB

Soon after the end of the World War 2 the tensions between Soviet Union and United States of America engulfed into Cold War. A full-scale war of propaganda was used by both side including shortwave radio broadcasts. Shortwave radio broadcasts could reach listeners to faraway locations including the Soviet occupied Latvia.  Soviet security services were unable to control the foreign broadcasters so they tried to jam the broadcasts or to punish the listeners. But in either way it was never-ending carousel as Soviet radio industry made shortwave radio receivers in masses and neither the technical jamming or KGB monitoring could not fully block the western propaganda.

Shortwave radio broadcasts were popular among Latvians because many of them were critical of the soviet mass media content and therefore they seek alternative news sources. In first post war years radio was still a rare household item, as may pre-war Latvian and German-made radios were lost and Soviets attempted to register the radio owners. The average shortwave listener needed to know English, German and Russian although some of their news were transcribed in the national partisan underground newspapers and leaflets. However, the circulation of these newspapers were quite low. So radio owners tried to listen to “Radio London”, “Voice of America”, “Radio Luxembourg” and “Radio in American Sector”, that transmitted from Western Germany. After the Winston Churchill “Iron Curtain” speech in May 24 1946 in Fulton the BBC World Service started broadcasts in Russian. From September 2 1948 “Radio Vaticana” started broadcasts in Latvian.

Soviet authorities listened and discussed these broadcasts themselves. Since the content of these broadcasts were beyond their control they started to build powerful jammers. Their technical operation is discussed in separate post. War in Korea triggered the full-scale “campaign of truth” against the communists and decided to boost nationalism within Soviet occupied Baltic republics. On June 3 1951 the “Voice of America” begun to broadcast in Latvian. Latvians at first paid large attention to it, radio played the Anthem of Latvia and called for resistance making many people to believe that US will send its support. However, it took place after the deportation of March 25 1949 and Soviet power had fully established itself in Latvia. Later people got enough of repetitive information and lack innovation.

Soviet Ministry of Security gathered reports about people listening to “Voice of America”. Mostly they were discovered when they unknowingly talking about the broadcasts to a KGB agent or their conversations were overheard. They were added to KGB list as persons as spreaders of the “anti-soviet propaganda”. Soviet bureaucrats were even suggested to stop the production of the shortwave receivers, however it was turned down by the producers. At the start of the sixties Latvian industrial companies like VEF and Radiotehnika were one of the first to produce portable affordable transistor radios in USSR. Radio was no more a large cabinet like standing in room corner it could be battery-powered and taken to picnics.

Despite the relative liberalization after the death of Stalin and limitation of repressions the ideological war with west was far from over. Broadcasts from the west continued and it was forbidden to publicly spoke about the content heard in them. Doing so might result an arrest in “Corner house” of KGB main headquarters in Riga. It was also no secret that shortwave radio broadcasts inspired many dissidents and no wonder why many workers in VEF and Radiotehnika became dissidents. Most known of them were Gunārs Astra. On September 3 1953 in town of Auce locals streamed the Voice of America within local radio broadcasting net. They were later arrested.

During the crisis in Hungary on 1956 people were tuned to BBC World Service and Voice of America. Some young students told they only first learned about Stalin’s cult of personality from the Voice of America. In Preiļi region people gathered in groups to listen to Voice of America. While USSR was reluctant to speak about negative news within the country the US spent an enormous recourses for anti-communist propaganda. President of US Richard Nixon told that its much more useful to spent one dollar on radio propaganda rather than spend 10 dollars on another new rocket. Another massive radio propaganda network also broadcasting in Latvian was “Radio Free Europe” that in its r0ots was a funded by US CIA. It was kept secret until on late seventies KGB funded leftist magazine uncovered it. After that Radio Free Europe was funded by US State Congress. Soviet Union also had shortwave propaganda station “Radio Moscow” that transmitted in various western languages. Shortwave radio jamming in USSR was halted during diplomatic warm-ups on 1963-1968 and 1973-1979 both times restarted because of the Soviet invasions in Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan.  Because of relative low numbers of English speakers the broadcasts in English were not jammed. This is also one of the reasons why in schools the English studies were limited.

Radio Free Europe begun its Latvian broadcasts on 1975. KGB foreign branch was tasked to gather information about the Latvian broadcasting staff and their editors and tried to infiltrate their agents in them. KGB succeeded to find information but failed to send agents to subvert the Latvian editions of VoA and RFE. As the soviet power weakened on seventies people were less afraid to speak about the things heard on the radios. KGB still tried to punish some people who were too open, often it was included into official accusation that the crime was influenced by the western radio broadcasts. Last such case was for Rolands Silaraups on 1986 the member of the nationalist Helsinki-86 movement.

On 1987 in the spirit of perestroika the shortwave jamming was fully halted. People now closely followed the VoA and RFE. Some of them heard about the first pro-independence protests on 1987 in the foreign radios and took action on following ones. On political level most influential were the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe. On cultural level the foreign pop and rock music heard by youngsters on their Spīdola radio receivers also boosted the Latvian cultural life. The banned Latvian movie “Four White Shirts” included  old conservative party functionary in the censorship meeting talking about the bad influence on the young generations caused by Spīdola radio receivers.

Today the World Wide Web has replaced shortwave radio as propaganda weapon. Voice of America no longer broadcasts in Russian or Latvia. Radio Free Europe however continues to broadcast in Russian and Belarussian over shortwave, because their local coverage within medium waves were closed by Russian authorities on 2012.  Russia itself has stripped their Voice of Russia the oldest international radio station from 1920ies when it was called Radio Comintern. But, now the neo-soviet Vladimir Putin regime has begun a crackdown on Internet calling it a project of the CIA. In such manner it could be possible that if Russia will isolate itself from rest of the world, the shortwave broadcasting to Russia can again became active. There is present example of China and even more extreme of North Korea where controlled Internet has caused extensive shortwave broadcast targeting towards these countries. In return China and North Korea use extensive shortwave jammers to limit these broadcasts from US and Europe. Will Russia will return to an old days of shortwave jamming and arresting their listeners we shall see.

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