After the Livonian war former lands of Livonia were split between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden. Sweden grabbed Northern Estonia with Tallinn. However as the Empire of Sweden grow stronger its lust for more land in the Baltic region grew. Sweden wanted the port of Riga for its trade supremacy in the Baltic Sea along with rich agricultural lands in former Livonia.
Just as a Hundred years war between England and France in Middle Ages this war broke out because of succession conflict. In 1587 by legal matters Swedish prince Sigismund III Vasa became the king of Poland-Lithuania, in 1594 he was crowned as a king of Sweden. However this was not liked in Sweden because Sigismund was a Catholic but Sweden was Protestant Lutheran country. He was deposed from Swedish throne. However Sigismund did not give up and decided to start a war against Sweden. This war crucial for the Latvian nation since the most of the battle action happened in territory of today Latvia.
In the first two years of war Swedes captured a large part of Polish owned Duchy of Pārdaugava. The Swedes took unsuccessful raids on Riga and were forced to retreat. Polish forces led by Jan Zamoyski made counterattacks on Swedes and routed them back to Northern Estonia. At this time Vidzeme suffered an outburst of famine and bubonic plagues. Thousands died in war caused calamity.
Sweden however was able to reassemble its army and send to Riga once again. Their army was highly trained motivated and well-trained. Poland lacked originality and funds to support its troops. Swedish forces at 1605 reached Riga and started the siege. The fortress of Dünamünde (Daugavgrīva) was surrounded and bombed by the Swedish army. At September 23 main forces of Sweden reached Riga. Poles arrived at the spot and one of the famous battles at that time the battle of Kircholm (Salaspils) started. The Swedes was led by King Charles IX who took command of 10 800 men and 11 cannons. Most of the Swedish fighters were actually mercenaries from Germany and Scotland. Poles had 1 300 men of musketeers and pikeman. It also had a crushing force of 2 600 cavalry of Winged Hussars. These well-trained men with lances and decorative wings on their backs were the finest that Poles and Lithuanians could offer. Swedish cavalry had only pistols and poorer horses.
The Swedes were superior to Poles by 1:3 so Polish commander Jan Chlodkeiwitz devised a feint maneuver to move Swedes out of their high position. Swedes thought that Poles were retreating and advanced only to get in line of fire by Poles. Then the Hussars unleashed their attack. 300 Winged Hussars charged and destroyed Swedish positions. After 20- 30 minute battle ended with Swedish defeat. Sweden lost 9000 men Poland only 1000. This was the most famous of all Polish victories.
Victory however could not end the war quickly. Polish army did not receive payments and left the ranks for plundering. Victorious Hetman Jan Chlodkeiwitz was forced to lead a handful of mercenaries funded from his own pocket. In 1608 Swedes returned to Livonia in 1608-1609 Swedes captured the fortress of Dünamünde and Kokenhusen (Koknese). However at 1609 Jan Chlodkeiwitz again relived Riga and defeated Swedes near river Gauja. A truce was signed in 1611. During this time Poles were occupied in their war in Russia.
War restarted when “Swedish Meteor” Gustav II Adolphus at 1620 again set war path to Riga. Famous for his successes in Thirty years war Gustav II was one of the most talented commanders in that time. He at last captured Riga. Poles were unable to send reinforcements since their war in Russia ended in failure and more serious war was fought in the same time with the Ottoman Empire. So a truce lasting till 1625 was signed.
In 1625 Gustav’s forces captured all of Livonia. He did a crushing victory in battle of Wallhof (Valle) at January 7 1626. Swedes stated that they had not lost a single man in battle when Poles lost 1 5000 men. Then war turned to East Prussia. The final battle was fought near Trzciana, Prussia. The battle was won by the Poles; however this does not prevent the Poles from signing a ceasefire.
The Truce of Altmark gave Sweden Riga and whole of Estonia and Vidzeme. Latvian lands now were split between two empires. Peace in the Latvian territory only lasted until 1655 when it was hit by First Northern war.
Dunsdorfs, Edgars. (1962) Latvijas vēsture, 1600-1710. Stockholm: Daugava.
Lagerqvist, Lars O. (2001) A History of Sweden. Stockholm: The Swedish Institute.